覆藏己罪與發露懺悔

 

 

 

 

佛教中所謂的「犯戒」,是指「明知故犯」。換言之,不論是比丘或在家人,當他(她)的心中很清楚知道某種行徑是受到戒律所規範,而仍作出這樣的惡行,就叫做「犯戒」,這意味著此人已藐視戒律,輕賤三寶。但倘若此人誤認或不知道某種行徑為戒律所禁止,進而作出該惡行,因為此人心中並非故意犯戒,並未藐視戒律及輕賤三寶,而僅是知見不正確,這種情形至多稱之為「污染」戒律,也就是使戒行不清淨,但不屬於犯戒。

「污染」戒律雖不是犯戒,仍屬惡行,有惡行就該發露懺悔,若掩飾或覆藏,就是不知慚愧,不思反省,執迷不悟,來生必會感招三惡道的苦果,一如伊羅缽羅龍王,在久遠的上古迦葉佛的時代曾是一名比丘,僅因為破壞了一株名為伊羅缽羅的樹木而觸犯了「不得砍伐草木」一戒,又覆藏己罪,未曾發露懺悔,以致死後墮入龍界。但他又因生前曾努力修持布施、其他梵行、及聽聞正法等諸多波羅蜜,因「雜染業」而成為神通廣大且威勢通天的大龍王。【南傳巴利經典有相同的記載,但內容與北傳的情節稍有出入。】

懺悔在佛教中非常的重要,它不僅僅是一種儀式那麼狹隘,它是一種身口意的淨化。佛陀在北傳《分別善惡報應經》中說道:「若人造惡業,作已深自責;懺悔更不造,能拔根本業。」;又在北傳《四分律》中更說道:「懺悔則安樂。不懺悔不安樂。憶念犯發露。知而不覆藏。」

「污染」戒行的過失雖屬微細,猶需透過懺悔而清淨,更遑論是更嚴重的「犯戒」。但懺悔的精神不僅僅是坦露認錯,更重要的是知過能改及不二過,猶如孔子所謂的「知過能改,善莫大焉」。

對一個發願終生修四梵住的人來說,他(她)的心中對「戒」的態度可能跟一般人不一樣,因為「戒」就是禪修的基礎,猶如高樓須有堅固的地基,因此他(她)會打從內心深處戒慎恐懼。如果是在家人,五戒及八戒對他(她)而言就是佛的代表,就是三寶的代表,無比的尊貴。

  在家人的懺悔可向一名清淨的比丘、或對佛像坦露;而比丘則須慎重地公開舉行羯摩。記得已故的聖嚴法師在他的著作「戒律學綱要」一書中提到,天主教的信徒會定期向修士神父懺悔,誠實的面對上帝及自己,這麼做有其心理學上的意義,猶如置之死地而後重生,可使心靈重獲平靜與喜樂。而佛教的公開發露懺悔也是一樣的道理,它要求誠實的面對三寶及自己,這麼做能讓修行人心中的罪惡感消除,不再「追悔」,使戒行清淨,因清淨而重獲平靜、平安、與喜樂,當這位行者再度憶念五戒時,才可以「不悔」,才可以「歡悅」,才可以「喜」,才可以「輕安」,才可以「樂」,才可以「止」......才有「道」、「果」、「涅槃」可期。

  犯戒而生的「追悔」就是五蓋中的「疑悔」,它會將我們拖曳至惡道,阻礙我們走向人間天上及四禪八定,乃至道、果、涅槃。本經中的茉莉夫人就是一個非常經典的例子,由於她在生時犯下了「邪淫」及「妄語」等兩項戒律,她本可透過懺悔而清淨,但卻選擇了掩飾覆藏,因為心中受縛於罪惡感以致當生無法證得初果,且於死後墮入了地獄七天。七天後,她又因生前的布施、淨信三寶、八戒等龐大的不可思議功德而投生至欲界的第四層兜率陀天,由於她生前是佛教人間的大護法,所以相信以此功德必將使她未來快速地走向解脫。

 

選譯自南傳巴利英譯《法句經註釋》

喬正一譯於中華民國101年4月22日八關齋戒日

 

  佛陀還住在古印度的王舍城祇樹給孤獨園林的時候,祂說了一則關於波斯匿王的妻子茉莉皇后的事件。

 

有一天,茉莉皇后進浴室洗臉,同時清洗手跟腳。而她養的寵物公狗也跟著進了浴室,就在茉莉彎腰洗腳時,這隻公狗與茉莉的前生或許有男女情愛的因緣,竟從她身後撲了上去想與她發生人獸性交。而茉莉不但沒有阻止,反而覺得有趣,並樂在其中。

 

當時波斯匿王正巧從窗戶外撞見這怪異的一幕,等茉莉回到寢宮時,波斯匿王非常生氣的責問道:「哼!妳這個淫婦,妳剛才在浴室裡跟狗做了什麼好事?我都親眼看見了,妳還有什麼話好說?」

 

茉莉嚇壞了,她不敢承認,所以便謊稱她只是在洗臉及洗手腳,她又繼續硬掰道:「說來真是邪門,只要有人進到那間浴室,從窗外往裡看,都會看成是兩個人。陛下啊,如果您不相信臣妾,那我們就做一個試驗好了,您自己進浴室,由我從窗外來看。」

 

波斯匿王接受了建議,走進了浴室,隨後出來。茉莉便問:「陛下,為什麼您會與一隻母山羊在一起?」

 

    波斯匿王被搞糊塗了,腦筋開始變得不清楚,於是接受了茉莉的說法,認定是那間邪門的浴室在作祟。

 

    但從那一次起,茉莉的心中一直非常的內疚與自責,她沒有勇氣發露懺悔,以致在臨死前失去了正念,忘記了生前對三寶所作出的龐大貢獻,她覺得很對不起她的丈夫,心中被「邪淫」及「妄語」這兩件惡行所桎梏,結果死後投生至地獄中。

 

    當茉莉皇后的葬禮結束後,波斯匿王仍抑止不住對愛妻的思念,於是跑去問  世尊茉莉投生至何處?

 

    世尊為了撫平波斯匿王心中的傷痛,但又覺得若據實以告可能會動搖他對三寶的信心(註:因為茉莉生前對三寶的奉獻不遺餘力,若告訴波斯匿王實情,可能會令他產生誤會,進而譏嫌誹謗三寶。),於是勸他先別問,而波斯匿王也就忘了這件事。

 

    就這樣過了七天,茉莉的惡業消失了,她又因生前巨大的善業立即轉生至欲界的第四層兜率陀天。就在那一天,  世尊親赴皇宮接受波斯匿王的供養,當  世尊用完餐以後,波斯匿王又想起了茉莉皇后,於是他又問茉莉投生至何處。

 

    「陛下,您安心吧!她已經生天了,她現在已投生至欲界的第四層兜率陀天了。」  世尊回答。

 

    聽到這樣的話,令波斯匿王歡喜不已,他讚道:「是啊!茉莉本來就該生在善處天界,除了天界極樂善處,她還能生到哪去呢?她生前總是積極行善,老想著第二天要以什麼樣的美食供養  佛陀。世尊啊!我身為您虔誠又謙卑的弟子,不知您對我有何教誨?」

 

    「陛下,您當思惟無常,您看!這些是您的父親及祖父所遺留下的皇室御用馬車,現在都已破舊,不堪使用了。同樣的道理,您的身體終有一天也會面臨老化及死亡,唯有珍貴神聖的正法將永垂不朽!」

 

   於是,佛陀便說出以下的偈語作總結:

盛飾王車必將朽,此身老邁亦當衰;

唯有正法永不朽,善人傳示與善人。

 

 

The Story of Queen Mallika

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (151) of this book, with reference to Mallika, queen of King Pasenadi of Kosala.

One day, Mallika went into the bathroom to wash her face, hands and feet. Her pet dog also came in; as she was bending to wash her feet, the dog tried to have sex with her, and the queen appeared to be amused and somewhat pleased. The king saw this strange incident through the window from his bedroom. When the queen came in, he said angrily to the queen, "Oh, you wicked woman! What were you doing with that dog in the bathroom? Do not deny what I saw with my own eyes." The queen replied that she was only washing her face, her hands and her feet, and so was doing nothing wrong. Then she continued, "But, that room is very strange. If anyone went into that room, to one looking from this window there would appear to be two. If you do not believe me, O King, please go into that room and I will look through this window."

So, the king went into the bathroom. When he came out, Mallika asked the king why he misbehaved with a she-goat in that room. The king denied it, but the queen insisted that she saw them with her own eyes. The king was puzzled, but being dim-witted, he accepted the queen's explanation, and concluded that the bath room was, indeed, very strange.

From that time, the queen was full of remorse for having lied to the king and for having brazenly accused him of misbehaving with a she-goat. Thus, even when she was approaching death, she forgot to think about the great unrivalled charities she had shared with her husband and only remembered that she had been unfair to him. As a result of this, when she died she was reborn in niraya. After her burial, the king intended to ask the Buddha where she was reborn. The Buddha wished to spare his feelings, and also did not want him to lose faith in the Dhamma. So he willed that this question should not be put to him, and King Pasenadi forgot to ask the Buddha.

However, after seven days in niraya, the queen was reborn in the Tusita deva world. On that day, the Buddha went to King Pasenadi's palace for alms-food; he indicated that he wished to rest in the coach-shed where the royal carriages were kept. After offering alms-food, the king asked the Buddha where queen Mallika was reborn and the Buddha replied, "Mallika has been reborn in the Tusita deva world." Hearing this the king was very pleased, and said, 'Where else could she have been reborn? She was always thinking of doing good deeds, always thinking what to offer to the Buddha on the next day. Venerable Sir! Now that she is gone, I, your humble disciple, hardly know what to do." To him the Buddha said, "Look at these carriages of your father and your grandfather; these are all worn down and lying useless; so also is your body, which is subject to death and decay. Only the Dhamma of the Virtuous is not subject to decay."

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 151: The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out, the body also grows old, but the Dhamma of the Virtuous does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Virtuous among themselves.

 

 

 

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