本經與巴利聖典的《中部》第12經《大獅子吼經》第2部的內容相同。主要是佛陀講述自己在成佛前六年極端苦行的經過。

    佛陀後來發現唯有依靠「戒」、「定」、「慧」、「解脫」等四聖法,才能成就無上菩提。並告誡大家唯有此四聖法(等於八正道)才是解脫的速成捷徑,可避免走入旁門左道及浪費摸索的時間。

    佛陀在本經中還提到,淨居天又稱做不還天,投生於此天的天神是不可能再下墮到較低的色界天或欲界的塵世,此天的天神最後的結局就是解脫涅槃,而菩薩都一定是在人間成佛,所以絕不可能投生在淨居天。

選譯自《增壹阿含經》第31品第8

喬正一白話譯於西元2015/5/3農曆十五之八關齋戒日

  我是這樣聽聞的:

    有一次,佛陀暫時住在古印度毘舍離城外的一處森林中。

    當時,世尊是這樣告訴諸比丘的:「在我還沒有成佛以前,那時我是住在一座名叫大恐懼的山裡。

    那一座山,對一般人來說非常的恐怖,不管是誰,只要一進入此山中,都會寒毛直豎。

    如果是夏天很熱的時候,林中野馬四處縱橫,我就赤裸盤坐修行;到了晚上,便回深林中。

    如果是嚴冬極寒之日,風雨交加,白天便入森林中,夜晚便在空地上盤坐。

    當時的我,只能以一首前所未聞的偈語來表達我堅決修行的心志:『澹淡夜安,大畏山中;露其形體,是我誓願。』

    有時我到墳塚間取死人的壽衣覆蓋在身體上,如果有村民看到我躺在那裡,便以為我是屍體,他們出於開玩笑,拿木枝搔我的耳朵或鼻子;有的人會對我吐口水;有的人會對著我小便;有的人會拿土撥灑在我的身上。然而,當時我一直保持不動,因為我不想嚇到這些人。

    有時,我來到有犛牛聚集的地方,假設我看見有小牛的糞便,我便取來吃;假設沒有小牛的糞便,我便取大牛的糞便來吃

    我在吃這些東西的時候,突然心想:『我又何必吃東西呢?我可以終日不食。』

    當我心中生起斷食的念頭時,諸天神便現身在我的面前,他們勸我:『請您千萬不要斷食,如果您真的要這麼做,我們定當以天界的甘露精氣強行灌注在您的身體裡,使您活下去。』

    當時,我又想到:『既然我已決定斷食,又豈可接受諸天神送給我的甘露呢?這樣豈不是矯揉造作?如此一來,必遭世人的誹謗譏嫌,指謫我的修行成就不過是盜名欺世而已。』

    於是,我改變了想法,我決定吃殘餘的麻與米。

    就這樣,我每天只吃一麻一米,以致於身體衰弱,形容枯槁,肌膚都可清楚的看到骸骨相連,前胸貼後背,頭頂上生瘡,皮肉自墮,猶如一顆敗壞掉的葫蘆;我的眼睛就像深水倒影的星宿,矇瞍無神;我的身軀就像一輛壞掉的車子,各種器官機能都無法正常的運作;我兩邊的臀部萎縮到就像駱駝的脚跡一般。當我以手按摩腹部時,我的脊骨才能直立,我甚至還可以從後面的背部摸到前面腹部的肚皮,這一切皆因斷食之故所引起。

    我因為每天只吃一麻、一米,在修行上竟毫無進展,也見不到最高的法。如果我想起身去大小便,竟然都站不起來,甚至還不支倒地,昏迷不醒人事。

    諸天神看見我這般慘狀,便嘆說:『唉~~這個沙門瞿曇已取滅度了!』又或者有天神說:『不是!這個沙門還沒死,但他的死期不遠矣。』又或者有天神說:『不對!不對!你們都錯了!這個沙門並沒有死,他是真正的阿羅漢,因為阿羅漢都一定會歷經這樣的苦行。』

    當時,我還有一點意識,可以覺知外在的情況,我心想:『我現在可以進入無息(呼吸)禪中。』於是,我開始數出入息,我覺知到有空氣從耳中一進一出,當時我耳朵感覺到呼吸的風聲恰似雷鳴大作一般轟隆作響。

    我又心想:『我要閉口塞耳,停止呼吸。』因為停止呼吸,空氣無法從耳、鼻、口出,便從手脚中排出,當時體內氣體流動的聲音恰似雷聲怒吼,我的意識也跟隨著身內的氣體在迴轉。

    接著,我把全身諸孔都閉塞住,但我的額痛竟然立刻疼痛,恰似有人以鐵鑽在鑽我的頭。

    我開始以意導氣,將諸氣息盡集中在小腹丹田中,就在氣息轉為極少時,身體產生極大的苦痛,猶如一頭遭到屠夫以刀宰殺的牛一般,又好比被兩名強壯的男人共同抓住的一個虛弱的人,被放在火上燒烤,那種極度的疼痛,絕非一般人所能忍受。

    雖然如此,當時的我仍有意識,但我的形體已經不像一個正常的人,有人看見我便驚訝地說:『唉呀!這個沙門的膚色怎麼那麼黑?』又有人說:『這個沙門的膚色看起來就像是死屍一般的焦黑。』

    比丘!以上就是我六年中的無益苦行,我遍嚐各種錯誤,終不得無上菩提。

    後來,我改變想法,我決定開始每天吃一個水果。但我的身體依然虛弱,無法自理,就好像一個一百二十歲的老人一般,骨節離散,不能扶持。

    比丘!當時我吃的一顆水果,就如同今日的小棗一般。

    就在這個時候,我開始反省我的錯誤,我發現這些苦行都不是解脫之道的正確方法,一定還有別的方法!!

    於是,我開始回憶起我少年時在皇宮的大樹下靜坐的那個神秘經驗,當時的我無淫、無欲,除去一切惡、不善法,遨遊於初禪;無覺、無觀,遨遊於二禪;護念清淨無有眾想,遨遊於三禪;復無苦樂,意念清淨,遨遊於四禪。我心想,或許我能循著這些方法,求取無上真正之道。

    我六年之中勤苦求道而一事無成。有時我躺臥荊棘之上;有時躺臥在木鐵釘之上;有時將身體倒懸離地,兩脚在上,頭首向地;有時交脚𨀛踞;有時蓄養長鬚髮不剪;有時在烈日下曝曬;有時在盛冬之時坐在冰上,將身體沒入水中浸泡;有時靜默不語;有時只吃一食,有時吃二食,有時吃三食、四食,乃至七食;有時吃蔬菜水果;有時吃稻麻;有時吃草根;有時吃木實;有時吃香花;有時吃各種果蓏;有時裸形;有時穿著弊壞之衣;有時穿著莎草之衣;有時穿著毛毳之衣;有時我以人髮覆形;有時養髮;有時取他人的頭髮戴在自己的身上。

    就是這樣,比丘!我過去的苦行可以說已到了一個走火入魔的極端之境,然而,我一直找不到四種解脫之法,是哪四種呢?也就是:賢聖戒律難曉難知,賢聖智慧難曉難知,賢聖解脫難曉難知,賢聖三昧難曉難知。

    終於,我決定放棄無益的苦行,求取無上之道。什麼是無上之道?也就是前面提到的四種解脫之法:賢聖戒律、賢聖三昧、賢聖智慧、賢聖解脫。

    我心想:『我不可能以此虛劣的身體來求取無上真正之道,我必須多少吃一點東西來補充氣力,維持身體的健康,健康是修行之本,只有良好的身體,才能夠好好地修行。』

    可就在我開始進食的時候,伴隨我的五名比丘誤會我放逸,他們誤認我:『此沙門瞿曇性行錯亂,捨正法而就邪業。』於是,他們捨我而去。

    當時的我,從座位起身,面向東方經行。在經行的路上我開始在想:『過去久遠如琲e沙一般的諸佛,他們的成道之處都在哪裡?』

    就在那個時候,天空中有一位天神佇立在天上,他對我說:『大士【菩薩】,過去如琲e沙一般的諸佛世尊,他們都是坐在清涼的菩提樹蔭下成佛。』

    接著,我又想:『諸佛是坐著呢?還是站立著?』

    天神又來告訴我說:『過去如琲e沙一般的諸佛世尊,都是坐在草蓐上,然後成佛。』

    就在離我不遠之處,有一位名叫吉祥的梵志在一旁刈草,我走向他問道:『你是何人?請問您的姓名?』

    『我的名字叫吉祥,我姓弗星。』

    『哦!善哉!善哉!真是好姓名,真是世間希有,希望您現世吉祥如意,生老病死永遠除盡。可否請您布施我一些草?

    『瞿曇!你要這些草幹嘛?』

    『我要鋪在菩提樹下,我要坐在上面求取四種解脫之法。』

    比丘們!當時,吉祥梵志親自拿著草到菩提樹下,將草舖在金剛座上,我就坐在草的上面,正身正意,結跏趺坐,繫念在前。

    此時,我的貪欲意解,除諸惡法,有覺、有觀,遊志初禪,有覺、有觀除盡,遊志二、三禪,護念清淨,憂喜除盡,遊志四禪。

    我當時以清淨之心,除諸結使,得無所畏,自識宿命無數來變,我開始回憶過去無數宿世前塵往事:或一生、二生、三、四、五生、十生、二十、三十、四十、五十、百生、千生、百千萬生、成劫、敗劫、無數成劫、無數敗劫、無數成敗之劫。我曾死此生彼,從彼死後又來投生於此,一切本末的因緣來歷,都清清楚楚,歷歷在目。

    我復以清淨無瑕穢的天眼,觀察一切眾生的生與死,我看見有的投生於善趣、善色;有的墮入惡趣、惡色;若好、若醜;一切都隨其自身業行的善與惡。我清楚的看見:有的眾生因身修惡行,口修惡行,意修惡行,誹謗賢聖,造邪惡業,與邪見相應,死後墮入地獄中;有的眾生,因身、口、意行善,不誹謗賢聖,與正見相應,死後投生於人間。

    我以清淨無瑕穢的三昧之心,斷盡一切的煩惱,成就心解脫、慧解脫,我如實的確知: 這一生已是歷劫生死的最後一站;我已成就最圓滿的梵行;我已沒有甚麼好再修了;當此生結束後,不會再有下一生了。我已成無上正真之道。

    假使,有一些沙門、婆羅門非常清楚六道輪迴的各種世界,他們可能會認為我過去當菩薩的時候,除了第四禪天的淨居天以外,想要找到一處我未曾投生過的地方還真是不容易。這是因為淨居天又稱做不還天,投生於此天的天神是不可能再下墮到較低的色界天或欲界的塵世,此天的天神最後的結局就是解脫涅槃,而菩薩都一定是在人間成佛,所以絕不可能投生在淨居天。

    你們所成就的「戒」、「定」、「慧」、「解脫」,都跟我一樣,我因為此四聖法而斷除胞胎之根,生死永盡,不再有下一生。

    所以,比丘們!你們都應當努力去成就以上的四聖法,因為若有比丘得此四聖法,便離解脫不遠,一如我今日成無上正真之道,皆由此四聖法而成就。

    就是這樣,比丘們!你們都應當如是學習。」

    諸比丘聽聞佛陀所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

原文/

聞如是:
  一時,佛在毘舍離城外林中。
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘:
  「我昔未成佛道時,爾時,依彼大畏山而住。是時,彼山其有欲心、無欲心入中者衣毛皆竪。若復極盛熱時,野馬縱橫,露其形體而坐,夜便入深林中。若復極寒之日,風雨交流,晝便入林中,夜便露坐。
  我爾時,正能誦一偈,昔所未聞,昔所未見也:
  『澹淡夜安,大畏山中,露其形體,是我誓願。』
  若我至塚間,取彼死人之衣而覆形體,爾時,若案吒村人來,取木支著我耳中,或著鼻中,或有唾者,或有溺者,或以土坌其身上,然,我爾時終不起意向彼人民,爾時,有此護心。
  爾時,有
𤚐牛之處,設見犢子𡱁,便取食之,若無犢子𡱁者,便取大牛𡱁食之。爾時,食此之食,我復作是念:『今用食為?乃可終日不食。』時,我以生此念,諸天便來到我所,而作是言:『汝今勿復斷食,若當斷食者,我當以甘露精氣相益,使存其命。』爾時,我復作是念:『今{}[]斷食,何緣復使諸天送甘露與我?今身將有虛詐。』是時,我復作是念:『今可食麻米之餘。』
  爾時,日食一麻一米,形體劣弱,骸骨相連,頂上生瘡,皮肉自墮,猶如敗壞瓠盧,亦不成就我頭,爾時亦復如是,頂上生瘡,皮肉自墮,皆由不食故也。亦如深水之中星宿現中,爾時,我眼亦復如是,皆由不食故。猶如故車敗壞,我身亦復如是,皆悉敗毀不可承順。亦如駱駝脚跡,兩尻亦復如是。若我以手按摩腹時,便值脊骨,若按脊時,復值腹皮,身體羸弱者,皆由不食故。
  我爾時復以一麻、一米,以此為食,竟無所益,亦復不得上尊之法。若我意中欲大小便者,即便倒地不能自起居。是時,諸天見已,便作是說:『此沙門瞿曇以取滅度。』或復有諸天而作是說:『此沙門未命終,今必命終。』或復有諸天而作是說:『此沙門亦非命終,此沙門實是阿羅漢,夫羅漢之法有此苦行。』
  我爾時,猶有神識,知外來機趣。時,我復作是念:『今可入無息禪中。』便入無息禪中,數出入息,我今以數出入息,覺知有氣從耳中出,是時風聲如似雷鳴。爾時,復作是念:『我今閉口塞耳,使息不出。』息以不出,是時內氣便從手脚中出,正使氣不得從耳、鼻、口出,爾時內聲如似雷吼,我爾時亦復如是。是時,神識猶隨身迴。
  是時,復作是念:『我宜更入無息禪中。』是時,盡塞諸孔之息。我以塞諸出入息,是時便患頭額痛,如似有人以鑽鑽頭,我亦如是,極苦頭痛。爾時,我故有神識,爾時,我復作是念:『我今更可坐禪,息氣不得出入。』爾時,我便塞出入息,是時諸息盡集腹中。爾時,息轉時極為少類,猶如屠牛之家,以刀殺牛,我亦如是,極患苦痛。亦如兩健人共執一劣人於火上炙,極患疼痛不可堪忍,我亦如是,此苦疼痛不可具陳。爾時,我猶有神識存,當我爾時坐禪之日,形體不作人色,其中有人見已而作是說:『此沙門顏色極黑。』有人見已而作是說:『此沙門顏色似終。』比丘!當知:我六年之中作此苦行,不得上尊之法。
  爾時,我作是念:『今日可食一果。』爾時,我便食一果。當我食一果之日,身形萎弱不能自起居,如年百二十,骨節離散,不能扶持。比丘!當知:爾時一果者,如似今日小棗耳。爾時,我復作是念:『[]{}成道之本,故當更有餘道。』爾時,我復作是念:『我自憶昔日在父王樹下,無婬、無欲,除去惡不善法,遊於初禪,無覺、無觀,遊於二禪,[]念清淨無有眾想,遊於三禪,無復苦樂,意念清淨,遊於四禪,此或能是道,我今當求此道。』
  我六年之中勤苦求道而不剋獲,或臥荊棘之上,或臥板木鐵釘之上,或懸鳥身體遠地,兩脚在上而頭首向地,或交脚
𨀛踞,或養長鬚髮未曾𢶕除,或日暴火炙,或盛冬坐冰,身體沒水,或寂寞不語,或時一食,或時二食,或時三食、四食,乃至七食,或食菜果,或食稻麻,或食草根,或食木實,或食花香,或食種種果蓏,或時倮形,或時著弊壞之衣,或著莎草之衣,或著毛毳之衣,或時以人髮覆形,或時養髮,或時取他髮益戴。如是,比丘!吾昔苦行乃至於斯,然,不獲四法之本,云何為四?所謂賢聖戒律難曉難知,賢聖智慧難曉難知,賢聖解脫難曉難知,賢聖三昧難曉難知。是謂,比丘!有此四法,吾昔苦行不獲此要。
  爾時,我復作是念:『吾今要當求無上之道。』何者是無上之道?所謂向四法是也:賢聖戒律、賢聖三昧、賢聖智慧、賢聖解脫。爾時,我復作是念:『不可以此羸劣之體求於上尊之道,多少食精微之氣,長育身體,氣力熾盛,然後得修行道。』當食精微之氣,時,五比丘捨我還退:『此沙門瞿曇性行錯亂,以捨真法而就邪業。』
  當我爾時,即從{}[]起,東向經行。是時,我復作是念:『過去久遠琩F諸佛,成道之處為在何所?』是時,虛空神天住在上,而語我曰:『賢士當知:過去琩F諸佛世尊,坐於道樹清涼蔭下而得成佛。』時,我復作是念:『為坐何處得成佛道?坐耶?立耶?』是時,諸天復來告我而作是說:『過去琩F諸佛世尊,坐於草蓐,然後成佛。』
  是時,去我不遠,有吉祥梵志在側刈草,即往至彼,問:『汝是何人,為名何等,為有姓耶?』梵志報曰:『我名吉祥,其姓弗星。』我爾時語彼人曰:『善哉!善哉!如是姓字,世之希有,姓名不虛,必成其號,當使現世吉無不利,生老病死永使除盡,汝姓弗星,與我共同,吾今欲[]所求,見惠少草。』吉祥問曰:『瞿曇!今日用斯草為?』爾時,我報吉祥曰:『吾欲敷樹王下求於四法,云何為四?所謂賢聖戒律、賢聖三昧、賢聖智慧、賢聖解脫。』
  比丘!當知:爾時,吉祥躬自執草詣樹王所,吾即坐其上,正身正意,結{}[]趺坐,{}[]念在前。爾時,貪欲意解,除諸惡法,有覺、有觀,遊志初禪,有覺、有觀除盡,遊志二、三禪,護念清淨,憂喜除盡,遊志四禪。
  我爾時以清淨之心,除諸結使,得無所畏,自識宿命無數來變,我便自憶無數世事:或一生、二生、三、四、五生、十生、二十、三十、四十、五十、百生、千生、百千萬生、成劫、敗劫、無數成劫、無數敗劫、無數成敗之劫,我曾死此生彼,從彼命終而來生此,{}[]其本末因緣所從,憶如此無數世事。
  我復以天眼清淨無瑕穢,觀眾生類生者、終者,善趣、善色,惡趣、惡色,若好、若醜,隨其行本,皆悉知之:或有眾生身修惡行,口修惡行,意修惡行,誹謗賢聖,造邪業本,與邪見相應,身壞命終,生地獄中,或有眾生之類,身、口、意行善,不誹謗賢聖,與正見相應,身壞命終,生於人間,是謂此眾生身、口、意行無有邪業。
  我以三昧之心清淨無瑕穢,有漏盡,成無漏心解脫、智慧解脫,生死已盡,梵行已立,所作已辦,更不復受胎,如實知之。即成無上正真之道。
  若使,比丘!或有沙門、婆羅門明了諸趣,然此趣{}[]本吾昔未始不行,除一淨居天上不來此世,或復沙門、婆羅門當可所生之處,然我不生者,則非其宜,已生淨居天,不復來此世間。卿等以得賢聖戒律,我亦得之,賢聖三昧,卿等亦得,我亦得之,賢聖智慧,卿等亦得,我亦得之,賢聖解脫,卿等亦得,我亦得之,賢聖解脫知見,卿等亦得,我亦得之,以斷胞胎之根,生死永盡,更不復受胞胎。
  是故,諸比丘!當求方便,成就四法,所以然者,若比丘得此四法者,成道不難,如我今日成無上正真之道,皆由四法而得成果。如是,諸比丘!當作是學。」
  爾時,諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

巴利語經文
MN.12/(2) Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ
   146. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati bahinagare aparapure vanasaṇḍe.
  ……(編譯者刪略)
   155. “Abhij
ānāmi kho panāhaṃ, sāriputta, caturaṅgasamannāgataṃ brahmacariyaṃ caritā tapassī sudaṃ homi paramatapassī, lūkho sudaṃ homi paramalūkho, jegucchī sudaṃ homi paramajegucchī, pavivitto sudaṃ homi paramapavivitto Tatrāssu me idaṃ, sāriputta, tapassitāya hoti acelako homi muttācāro hatthāpalekhano, na ehibhaddantiko na tiṭṭhabhaddantiko; nābhihaṭaṃ na uddissakataṃ na nimantanaṃ sādiyāmi. So na kumbhimukhā paṭiggaṇhāmi, na kaḷopimukhā paṭiggaṇhāmi, na eḷakamantaraṃ, na daṇḍamantaraṃ, na musalamantaraṃ, na dvinnaṃ bhuñjamānānaṃ, na gabbhiniyā, na pāyamānāya, na purisantaragatāya, na saṅkittīsu, na yattha sā upaṭṭhito hoti, na yattha makkhikā saṇḍasaṇḍacārinī; na macchaṃ na maṃsaṃ na suraṃ na merayaṃ na thusodakaṃ pivāmi; so ekāgāriko vā homi ekālopiko, dvāgāriko vā homi dvālopiko pe sattāgāriko vā homi sattālopiko; ekissāpi dattiyā yāpemi, dvīhipi dattīhi yāpemi pe sattahipi dattīhi yāpemi; ekāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāremi, dvīhikampi āhāraṃ āhāremi pe sattāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāremi; iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmi.
   “So sākabhakkho vā homi, sāmākabhakkho vā homi, nīvārabhakkho vā homi, daddulabhakkho vā homi, haṭabhakkho vā homi, kaṇabhakkho vā homi, ācāmabhakkho vā homi piññākabhakkho vā homi, tiṇabhakkho vā homi, gomayabhakkho vā homi, vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpemi pavattaphalabhojī.
   “So sāṇānipi dhāremi, masāṇānipi dhāremi, chavadussānipi dhāremi, paṃsukūlānipi dhāremi, tirīṭānipi dhāremi, ajinampi dhāremi, ajinakkhipampi dhāremi, kusacīrampi dhāremi, vākacīrampi dhāremi, phalakacīrampi dhāremi, kesakambalampi dhāremi, vāḷakambalampi dhāremi, ulūkapakkhampi dhāremi; kesamassulocakopi homi kesamassulocanānuyogamanuyutto; ubbhaṭṭhakopi homi āsanapaṭikkhitto; ukkuṭikopi homi ukkuṭikappadhānamanuyutto; kaṇṭakāpassayikopi homi kaṇṭakāpassaye seyyaṃ kappemi; sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmi iti evarūpaṃ anekavihitaṃ kāyassa ātāpanaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmi. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, tapassitāya hoti.
   156. “Tatrāssu me idaṃ, sāriputta, lūkhasmiṃ hoti – nekavassagaṇikaṃ rajojallaṃ kāye sannicitaṃ hoti papaṭikajātaṃ. Seyyathāpi, sāriputta, tindukakhāṇu nekavassagaṇiko sannicito hoti papaṭikajāto, evamevāssu me, sāriputta, nekavassagaṇikaṃ rajojallaṃ kāye sannicitaṃ hoti papaṭikajātaṃ. Tassa mayhaṃ, sāriputta, na evaṃ hoti– ‘aho vatāhaṃ imaṃ rajojallaṃ pāṇinā parimajjeyyaṃ, aññe vā pana me imaṃ rajojallaṃ pāṇinā parimajjeyyunti. Evampi me, sāriputta na hoti. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, lūkhasmiṃ hoti.
   “Tatrāssu me idaṃ, sāriputta, jegucchismiṃ hoti– so kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, satova abhikkamāmi, satova paṭikkamāmi, yāva udakabindumhipi me dayā paccupaṭṭhitā hoti– ‘māhaṃ khuddake pāṇe visamagate saṅghātaṃ āpādesinti. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, jegucchismiṃ hoti.
   “Tatrāssu me idaṃ, sāriputta, pavivittasmiṃ hoti– so kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, aññataraṃ araññāyatanaṃ ajjhogāhetvā viharāmi. Yadā passāmi gopālakaṃ vā pasupālakaṃ vā tiṇahārakaṃ vā kaṭṭhahārakaṃ vā vanakammikaṃ vā, vanena vanaṃ gahanena gahanaṃ ninnena ninnaṃ thalena thalaṃ saṃpatāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Mā maṃ te addasaṃsu ahañca mā te addasanti. Seyyathāpi, sāriputta, āraññako mago manusse disvā vanena vanaṃ gahanena gahanaṃ ninnena ninnaṃ thalena thalaṃ saṃpatati, evameva kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, yadā passāmi gopālakaṃ vā pasupālakaṃ vā tiṇahārakaṃ vā kaṭṭhahārakaṃ vā vanakammikaṃ vā vanena vanaṃ gahanena gahanaṃ ninnena ninnaṃ thalena thalaṃ saṃpatāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Mā maṃ te addasaṃsu ahañca mā te addasanti. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, pavivittasmiṃ hoti.
   “So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, ye te goṭṭhā paṭṭhitagāvo apagatagopālakā, tattha catukkuṇḍiko upasaṅkamitvā yāni tāni vacchakānaṃ taruṇakānaṃ dhenupakānaṃ gomayāni tāni sudaṃ āhāremi. Yāvakīvañca me sāriputta, sakaṃ muttakarīsaṃ apariyādinnaṃ hoti, sakaṃyeva sudaṃ muttakarīsaṃ āhāremi. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, mahāvikaṭabhojanasmiṃ hoti.
   157. “So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, aññataraṃ bhiṃsanakaṃ vanasaṇḍaṃ ajjhogāhetvā viharāmi. Tatrāssudaṃ, sāriputta, bhiṃsanakassa vanasaṇḍassa bhiṃsanakatasmiṃ hoti– yo koci avītarāgo taṃ vanasaṇḍaṃ pavisati, yebhuyyena lomāni haṃsanti. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, yā tā rattiyo sītā hemantikā antaraṭṭhakā himapātasamayā tathārūpāsu rattīsu rattiṃ abbhokāse viharāmi, divā vanasaṇḍe; gimhānaṃ pacchime māse divā abbhokāse viharāmi, rattiṃ vanasaṇḍe. Apissu maṃ, sāriputta, ayaṃ anacchariyagāthā paṭibhāsi pubbe assutapubbā
   “Sotatto sosinno ceva, eko bhiṃsanake vane.
   Naggo na caggimāsīno, esanāpasuto munīti.
   “So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, susāne seyyaṃ kappemi chavaṭṭhikāni upadhāya. Apissu maṃ, sāriputta, gāmaṇḍalā upasaṅkamitvā oṭṭhubhantipi, omuttentipi, paṃsukenapi okiranti, kaṇṇasotesupi salākaṃ pavesenti. Na kho panāhaṃ, sāriputta, abhijānāmi tesu pāpakaṃ cittaṃ uppādetā. Idaṃsu me, sāriputta, upekkhāvihārasmiṃ hoti.
   158. “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘āhārena suddhīti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘kolehi yāpemāti. Te kolampi khādanti, kolacuṇṇampi khādanti, kolodakampi pivanti anekavihitampi kolavikatiṃ paribhuñjanti. Abhijānāmi kho panāhaṃ, sāriputta, ekaṃyeva kolaṃ āhāraṃ āhāritā. Siyā kho pana te, sāriputta, evamassa– ‘mahā nūna tena samayena kolo ahosīti. Na kho panetaṃ, sāriputta, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Tadāpi etaparamoyeva kolo ahosi seyyathāpi etarahi. Tassa mayhaṃ, sāriputta, ekaṃyeva kolaṃ āhāraṃ āhārayato adhimattakasimānaṃ patto kāyo hoti. Seyyathāpi nāma āsītikapabbāni vā kāḷapabbāni vā, evamevassu me aṅgapaccaṅgāni bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma oṭṭhapadaṃ, evamevassu me ānisadaṃ hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma vaṭṭanāvaḷī, evamevassu me piṭṭhikaṇṭako unnatāvanato hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma jarasālāya gopānasiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti, evamevassu me phāsuḷiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma gambhīre udapāne udakatārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti, evamevassu me akkhikūpesu akkhitārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma tittakālābu-āmakacchinno vātātapena saṃphuṭito hoti sammilāto, evamevassu me sīsacchavi saṃphuṭitā hoti sammilātā tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, udaracchaviṃ parimasissāmīti piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃyeva pariggaṇhāmi, ‘piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ parimasissāmīti udaracchaviṃyeva pariggaṇhāmi, yāvassu me, sāriputta, udaracchavi piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ allīnā hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, vaccaṃ vā muttaṃ vā karissāmīti tattheva avakujjo papatāmi tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, tameva kāyaṃ assāsento pāṇinā gattāni anomajjāmi. Tassa mayhaṃ, sāriputta, pāṇinā gattāni anomajjato pūtimūlāni lomāni kāyasmā patanti tāyevappāhāratāya.
   159. “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘āhārena suddhīti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘muggehi yāpema pe tilehi yāpema pe taṇḍulehi yāpemāti. Te taṇḍulampi khādanti, taṇḍulacuṇṇampi khādanti, taṇḍulodakampi pivanti– anekavihitampi taṇḍulavikatiṃ paribhuñjanti. Abhijānāmi kho panāhaṃ, sāriputta, ekaṃyeva taṇḍulaṃ āhāraṃ āhāritā. Siyā kho pana te, sāriputta, evamassa– ‘mahā nūna tena samayena taṇḍulo ahosīti. Na kho panetaṃ, sāriputta, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Tadāpi etaparamoyeva taṇḍulo ahosi seyyathāpi etarahi. Tassa mayhaṃ, sāriputta, ekaṃyeva taṇḍulaṃ āhāraṃ āhārayato adhimattakasimānaṃ patto kāyo hoti. Seyyathāpi nāma āsītikapabbāni vā kāḷapabbāni vā, evamevassu me aṅgapaccaṅgāni bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma oṭṭhapadaṃ, evamevassu me ānisadaṃ hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma vaṭṭanāvaḷī, evamevassu me piṭṭhikaṇṭako unnatāvanato hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma jarasālāya gopānasiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti, evamevassu me phāsuḷiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma gambhīre udapāne udakatārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti, evamevassu me akkhikūpesu akkhitārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma tittakālābu āmakacchinno vātātapena saṃphuṭito hoti sammilāto, evamevassu me sīsacchavi saṃphuṭitā hoti sammilātā tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, udaracchaviṃ parimasissāmīti piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃyeva pariggaṇhāmi, piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ parimasissāmīti udaracchaviṃyeva pariggaṇhāmi. Yāvassu me, sāriputta, udaracchavi piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṃ allīnā hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, vaccaṃ vā muttaṃ vā karissāmīti tattheva avakujjo papatāmi tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, tameva kāyaṃ assāsento pāṇinā gattāni anomajjāmi. Tassa mayhaṃ, sāriputta, pāṇinā gattāni anomajjato pūtimūlāni lomāni kāyasmā patanti tāyevappāhāratāya.
   “Tāyapi kho ahaṃ, sāriputta, iriyāya tāya paṭipadāya tāya dukkarakārikāya nājjhagamaṃ uttariṃ manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu? Imissāyeva ariyāya paññāya anadhigamā, yāyaṃ ariyā paññā adhigatā ariyā niyyānikā, niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya.
   160. “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘saṃsārena suddhīti. Na kho pana so, sāriputta, saṃsāro sulabharūpo yo mayā asaṃsaritapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā, aññatra suddhāvāsehi devehi. Suddhāvāse cāhaṃ, sāriputta, deve saṃsareyyaṃ, nayimaṃ lokaṃ punarāgaccheyyaṃ.
   “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘upapattiyā suddhīti. Na kho pana sā, sāriputta upapatti sulabharūpā yā mayā anupapannapubbā iminā dīghena addhunā, aññatra suddhāvāsehi devehi. Suddhāvāse cāhaṃ, sāriputta, deve upapajjeyyaṃ, nayimaṃ lokaṃ punarāgaccheyyaṃ.
   “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘āvāsena suddhīti. Na kho pana so, sāriputta, āvāso sulabharūpo yo mayā anāvuṭṭhapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā, aññatra suddhāvāsehi devehi. Suddhāvāse cāhaṃ, sāriputta, deve āvaseyyaṃ, nayimaṃ lokaṃ punarāgaccheyyaṃ.
   “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘yaññena suddhīti. Na kho pana so, sāriputta, yañño sulabharūpo yo mayā ayiṭṭhapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā, tañca kho raññā vā satā khattiyena muddhāvasittena brāhmaṇena vā mahāsālena.
   “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘aggiparicariyāya suddhīti. Na kho pana so, sāriputta, aggi sulabharūpo yo mayā apariciṇṇapubbo iminā dīghena addhunā, tañca kho raññā vā satā khattiyena muddhāvasittena brāhmaṇena vā mahāsālena.
   161. “Santi kho pana, sāriputta, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘yāvadevāyaṃ bhavaṃ puriso daharo hoti yuvā susukāḷakeso bhadrena yobbanena samannāgato paṭhamena vayasā tāvadeva paramena paññāveyyattiyena samannāgato hoti. Yato ca kho ayaṃ bhavaṃ puriso jiṇṇo hoti vuddho mahallako addhagato vayo-anuppatto, āsītiko vā nāvutiko vā vassasatiko vā jātiyā, atha tamhā paññāveyyattiyā, parihāyatīti. Na kho panetaṃ, sāriputta evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Ahaṃ kho pana, sāriputta, etarahi jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayo-anuppatto, āsītiko me vayo vattati. Idha me assu, sāriputta, cattāro sāvakā vassasatāyukā vassasatajīvino, paramāya satiyā ca gatiyā ca dhitiyā ca samannāgatā paramena ca paññāveyyattiyena. Seyyathāpi, sāriputta, daḷhadhammā dhanuggaho sikkhito katahattho katūpāsano lahukena asanena appakasireneva tiriyaṃ tālacchāyaṃ atipāteyya, evaṃ adhimattasatimanto evaṃ adhimattagatimanto evaṃ adhimattadhitimanto evaṃ paramena paññāveyyattiyena samannāgatā. Te maṃ catunnaṃ satipaṭṭhānānaṃ upādāyupādāya pañhaṃ puccheyyuṃ, puṭṭho puṭṭho cāhaṃ tesaṃ byākareyyaṃ, byākatañca me byākatato dhāreyyuṃ, na ca maṃ dutiyakaṃ uttari paṭipuccheyyuṃ. Aññatra asitapītakhāyitasāyitā aññatra uccārapassāvakammā, aññatra niddākilamathapaṭivinodanā apariyādinnāyevassa, sāriputta, tathāgatassa dhammadesanā, apariyādinnaṃyevassa tathāgatassa dhammapadabyañjanaṃ, apariyādinnaṃyevassa tathāgatassa pañhapaṭibhānaṃ Atha me te cattāro sāvakā vassasatāyukā vassasatajīvino vassasatassa accayena kālaṃ kareyyuṃ. Mañcakena cepi maṃ, sāriputta, pariharissatha, nevatthi tathāgatassa paññāveyyattiyassa aññathattaṃ. Yaṃ kho taṃ, sāriputta, sammā vadamāno vadeyya– ‘asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānanti, mameva taṃ sammā vadamāno vadeyya asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan’”ti.
   162. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā nāgasamālo bhagavato piṭṭhito ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṃ bījayamāno. Atha kho āyasmā nāgasamālo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante! Api hi me, bhante, imaṃ dhammapariyāyaṃ sutvā lomāni haṭṭhāni. Konāmo ayaṃ, bhante, dhammapariyāyoti? Tasmātiha tvaṃ, nāgasamāla, imaṃ dhammapariyāyaṃ lomahaṃsanapariyāyo tveva naṃ dhārehīti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano āyasmā nāgasamālo bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandīti.
   Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dutiyaṃ.