伽藍經--羯臘摩經

 

 

 

     

    無論是基督教、天主教、大乘佛教、密宗、回教等各家各派都對自己的教義老王賣瓜,自賣自誇。因此曾有人問我,你如何知道你選擇的信仰就一定是正確?這個問題其實遠早在古印度佛陀時代就已有人提出,因為印度時至今日仍是各派宗教信仰沓雜林立,各教派導師莫不抬高自己、貶抑他人。對於上揭的問題,佛陀在本經中已有明確具體的回答。

    本經選譯自《中阿含16經》之《伽藍經》,其內容與巴利聖典的《羯臘磨經》內容完全一樣,是一篇曠世無匹的神聖經文,由這篇神聖的經文可以看出佛教是一種非常理智的宗教。佛陀在經中教導我們應秉持獨立思考的態度,不盲從、不依賴、也不迷信權威、傳統、傳說、習慣、或大師的觀點,應憑著良心作理性的判斷及仔細求證,追尋真理。

    謹以以下的偈語與大家共勉之:

勿因耳聞而輕信,道聽塗說本無稽;

不以傳統而妄信,歷代傳說多謬奇;

眾人謠言不可靠,毫釐之差失千里;

迷信教條未見安,經典所載非無疑;

師長訓示固可貴,懾信權威非所宜;

凡事合理方可信,且需益己復益人;

必俟體察分析後,始能虔信並奉行。

∼《羯臘磨經》

選譯自《中阿含16經》之《伽藍經》(業相應品)

喬正一白話譯於西元2015/3/28八關齋戒日

  我是這樣聽聞的:

    有一次,佛陀與許多大比丘一起遊方到了古印度的伽藍園,他們一行人來到了伽藍園的羇舍子村這個地方,暫時住在羇舍子村的北尸攝惒林中。

    當時,羇舍子村的伽藍人聽聞沙門瞿曇出身自高貴優秀的釋族,他捨棄了釋族的榮華富貴,出家學道,如今他與許多大比丘一起已遊方到了伽藍園,也來到了他們居住的羇舍子村,暫時住在羇舍子村的北尸攝惒林中。

    當地的人還聽說沙門瞿曇很有名,威名遍及十方,這位沙門瞿曇還具有十種聖號,分別是:如來、無所著、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無上士道法御、天人師、號佛、眾祐。

    他們還聽說沙門瞿曇當生已自知、自覺,自作證成就遊。他若說法,則初善、中善、終亦善,有義、有文,具足清淨、顯現梵行。若能有幸得見如來、無所著、等正覺,對其尊重禮拜、供養奉侍者,便能很快的獲得大福利。所以他們決定前往去頂禮沙門瞿曇。

    於是,羇舍子城的伽藍人各自攜家帶眷,全都來到了尸攝惒林。他們見到了佛陀以後,有的跪在地上,對佛陀稽首頂禮佛足,然後起身恭敬地坐在一旁;有的只是對佛陀問訊;有的只是合掌對佛陀行禮;有的在大老遠看見佛陀以後,便安靜地坐在一旁。

    當伽藍人都各自坐定以後,佛陀開始為大家說法,令在場的聽眾因聞法而心生歡喜。

    接著,有一名伽藍人從他的座位站了起來,將衣服袒露右肩以示對佛的尊敬,他面向佛陀合掌並問道:「瞿曇!曾有很多其他教派的出家人與大師來到我們伽藍這個城市,但他們全都老王賣瓜,自賣自誇;抬高自己、貶抑他人。瞿曇!當我們聽聞他們說的法以後,心中便產生疑惑,到底誰說的才是真的?誰說的才是假的?我們真得很徬徨,無所適從。」

    世尊回答:「伽藍人!你們不要心生疑惑,因為有疑惑,便產生猶豫。

    伽藍人!因為你們都還沒有斷除三結中的『疑結』,所以沒有淨智,對於『到底有沒有來生?』、『所作的業行是有罪?或無罪?』才會搞不清楚。

    伽藍人!諸業行有三種,它們都是從過去無始以來衍生而成的習性。是哪三種業行呢?分別是:貪是諸業的前導,是從過去無始以來衍生而成的貪欲習性;瞋恚及愚癡都是諸業行的前導,也都是從過去無始以來衍生而成的不良習性。

    伽藍人!一個貪心的人被貪婪所蒙蔽,慾壑難填,他們因貪欲有可能會作出殺生、不予取、邪淫、妄語、飲酒。

    伽藍人!一個瞋恚的人被瞋恚所蒙蔽,怒不可遏,他們因憤怒有可能會作出殺生、不予取、邪淫、妄語、飲酒。

    伽藍人!一個愚痴的人被邪見所蒙蔽,他們可能因不辨善惡而作出殺生、不予取、邪淫、妄言、飲酒。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子會遠離殺生、斷除殺生,棄捨刀杖等傷人的武器,有慚、有愧,有慈悲心,饒益一切眾生,乃至昆蟲,他的心中已淨除了殺生的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子會遠離不予取,斷除不予取,他會等對方同意才拿取,他樂於遵守不予取則不取,常好布施,歡喜而無吝嗇,不冀望對方的回報,他的心中已淨除了不予取的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離非梵行,斷除非梵行,他會勤修梵行,精勤妙行,清淨無穢,離欲斷淫,他的心中已淨除了非梵行的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離妄言,斷除妄言,只說真實語,樂於說真實語,安住於真實而不移動,一切所言皆可信任,不欺騙世人,他的心中已淨除了妄語的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離挑撥離間,斷除挑撥離間,奉行不兩舌,不破壞他人的和諧關係。他不會從甲這裡聽到乙的壞話,然後惡意將壞話傳到乙這裡,惡意的去破壞甲、乙的關係。他看到有人因誤會而決裂,他會去冰釋誤解,令對方和睦,令大家歡喜。他不會、也不喜歡去搞分裂、派系的對立。他的心中已淨除了兩舌的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離粗言惡口,斷除粗言惡口。若有所發言,他不會用辭語氣粗鄙,不會惡聲逆耳,不會令大家厭惡反感,也不會使他人苦惱,不會使他人心不得安寧。他會斷除如是惡口,若有所發言,一定是清和柔潤,順耳入心,可喜可愛,使他人平安、喜樂,言聲具了,不使他人感到恐懼,令他人安寧。他會說如是善言、愛語,他的心中已淨除了惡口的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子會遠離綺語,斷除綺語,他會看時間、場和、對象說話,他說的話都很真誠,如法、如義,能止息他人的煩惱與爭端,也樂於止息他人的煩惱與爭端,事順時得宜,善教善訶,他的心中已淨除了綺語的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離貪婪,斷除貪婪,心不懷嫉妒與競爭,看見他人的財物等諸生活資具,也不生起貪婪嫉妒,不渴望掠取他人的財物,他的心中已淨除了貪婪的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離瞋恚,斷除瞋恚,有慚、有愧,有慈悲心,饒益一切眾生,乃至昆蟲。他的心中已淨除了嫉妒瞋恚的心結。

    伽藍!多聞的聖弟子遠離邪見,斷除邪見,行於正見而不顛倒,他如是見、如是說:肯定布施、奉獻服務的價值,肯定持五戒、八齋戒,亦肯定決意發願,肯定世間有善惡業報,肯定有過去、今生、來世等輪迴,肯定應當孝敬父母的普世道德價值,肯定世上真有聖人往至善處,善趣、善向,肯定此世、彼世有自知、自覺、自作證成就遊的阿羅漢聖者。他的心中已淨除了邪見心結。

    伽藍!就是這樣,多聞的聖弟子成就身淨業,成就口、意淨業,遠離瞋恚、遠離諍端,除去睡眠,無掉舉、貢高驕慢,斷除疑、度慢,正念、正智,沒有愚癡。他的心便與慈相應,遍滿一方成就遊;同樣的方式,二、三、四方,四維上下,普週一切,心皆與慈相應,無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,極廣甚大,無量善修,遍滿一切世間成就遊。同樣的方式,悲……、喜……、與捨等四無量心相應,無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,極廣甚大,無量善修,遍滿一切世間成就遊。

    就是這樣,伽藍!多聞的聖弟子心中無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,便能獲得以下的四種平安與喜樂,是哪四種呢?分別是:

一、他可能會這樣想:『雖然我無法確定這世上到底有沒有今生來世,也無法百分百肯定有善惡業報這種事,但假設真的有,那麼我也賺到了,因為我已得此正見相應的善業,受持五戒十善具足。當我死後,必定投生至善處,甚至轉生到天界。』伽藍!這就是多聞的聖弟子的心中無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,他所獲得的第一種平安與喜樂。

他可能會這樣想:『我不確定這個世界上到底有沒有輪迴或有沒有因果業報。但就算沒有也沒關係,反正虎死留皮,人死留名,至少我可以為自己、家人、親友、後代子孫等留下好的名聲,我會受到智者的稱讚。』伽藍!這就是多聞的聖弟子的心中無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,他所獲得的第二種平安與喜樂。

他可能會這樣想:『假設作惡之人會有惡報,那麼我不對任何人懷有惡意,不造惡業,我將來一定不會遇到不幸。因為我不造孽、不傷人,那麼不幸、痛苦又由何處而生呢?』伽藍!這就是多聞的聖弟子的心中無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,他所獲得的第三種平安與喜樂。

他可能會這樣想:『假設作惡之人沒有惡報,那麼我不造孽作惡,我可以心安理得,無愧於天地,無負於他人,沒有恐懼與憂慮,常慈悲一切世間的蒼生,我的心不與眾生共諍,常保清淨、聖潔、歡悅。』伽藍!這就是多聞的聖弟子的心中無結、無怨,無恚、無諍,他所獲得的第四種平安與喜樂。」

    羇舍子城伽藍民眾聽聞佛陀說的以上的法後,都心生歡喜,他們對世尊說:「瞿曇!我們已經知道了,善逝!我們已經明白了。世尊!我們現在發願皈依佛、法及比丘眾,懇請世尊接受我等為在家弟子!從今日起,終生皈依三寶,直到生命結束的那一刻為止。」

    在場所有的伽藍人及諸比丘聽聞佛陀以上所說的法後,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

中阿含16/伽藍經(業相應品)

  我聞如是:
  一時,佛遊伽藍園,與大比丘眾俱,至羇舍子,住羇舍子村北尸攝惒林中。
  爾時,羇舍子伽藍人聞沙門瞿曇釋種子捨釋宗族,出家學道,遊伽藍園,與大比丘眾俱,來至此羇舍子,住羇舍子村北尸攝惒林中。彼沙門瞿曇有大名稱,周聞十方,沙門瞿曇如來、無所著、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無上士道法御、天人師、號佛、眾祐,彼於此世:天及魔、梵、沙門、梵志,從人至天,自知、自覺,自作證成就遊,彼若說法,初善、中善、竟亦善,有義、有文,具足清淨顯現梵行,若見如來、無所著、等正覺,尊重禮拜,供養承事者,快得善利。我等應共往見沙門瞿曇,禮事供養。
  羇舍子伽藍人聞已,各與等類眷屬、相隨,從羇舍子出,北行至尸攝惒林,欲見世尊禮事供養。往詣佛已,彼伽藍人或稽首佛足,卻坐一面;或問訊佛,卻坐一面;或叉手向佛,卻坐一面;或遙見佛已,默然而坐。彼時,伽藍人各坐已定,佛為說法,勸發渴仰,成就歡喜。無量方便為彼說法,勸發渴仰,成就歡喜已,默然而住。
  時,伽藍人,佛為說法,勸發渴仰,成就歡喜已,各從{}[]起,偏袒著衣,叉手向佛,白世尊曰:
  「瞿曇!有一沙門梵志來詣伽藍,但自稱歎己所知見,而呰毀他所知所見。瞿曇!復有一沙門梵志來詣伽藍,亦自稱歎己所知見,而呰毀他所知所見。瞿曇!我等聞已,便生疑惑,此沙門梵志何者為實?何者為虛?」
  世尊告曰:
  「伽藍!汝等莫生疑惑,所以者何?因有疑惑,便生猶豫。伽藍!汝等自無淨智:『為有後世?為無後世?』伽藍!汝等亦無淨智:『所作有罪?所作無罪?』伽藍!當知諸業有三,因習本有。{何云}[云何]為三?伽藍!謂:貪是諸業,因習本有。伽藍!恚及癡是諸業,因習本有。伽藍!貪者為貪所覆,心無厭足,或殺生,或不與取,或行邪淫,或知已妄言,或復飲酒。伽藍!恚者為恚所覆,心無厭足,或殺生,或不與取,或行邪淫,或知已妄言,或復飲酒。伽藍!癡者為癡所覆,心無厭足,或殺生,或不與取,或行邪淫,或知已妄言,或復飲酒。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離殺、斷殺,棄捨刀杖,有慚、有愧,有慈悲心,饒益一切,乃至蜫蟲,彼於殺生淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離不與取,斷不與取,與之乃取,樂於與取,常好布施,歡喜無悋,不望其報,彼於不與取淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離非梵行,斷非梵行,勤修梵行,精勤妙行,清淨無穢,離欲斷淫,彼於非梵行淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離妄言,斷妄言,真諦言,樂真諦,住真諦不移動,一切可信,不欺世間,彼於妄言淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離兩舌,斷兩舌,行不兩舌,不破壞他。不聞此語彼,欲破壞此,不聞彼語此,欲破壞彼,離者欲合,合者歡喜,不作群黨,不樂群黨,不稱群黨,彼於兩舌淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離麁言,斷麁言,若有所言,辭氣麁獷,惡聲逆耳,眾所不喜,眾所不愛,使他苦惱,令不得定,斷如是言,若有所說,清和柔潤,順耳入心,可喜可愛,使他安樂,言聲具了,不使人畏,令他得定,說如是言,彼於麁言淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離綺語,斷綺語,時說、真說、法說、義說、止息說,樂止息說,事順時得宜,善教善訶,彼於綺語淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離貪伺,斷貪伺,心不懷諍,見他財物諸生活具,不起貪伺,欲令我得,彼於貪伺淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離恚,斷恚,有慚、有愧,有慈悲心,饒益一切,乃至蜫蟲,彼於嫉恚淨除其心。
  伽藍!多聞聖弟子離邪見,斷邪見,行於正見而不顛倒,如是見、如是說:有施、有齋,亦有咒說,有善惡業報,有此世彼世,有父有母,世有真人往至善處,善去、善向此世、彼世自知、自覺、自作證成就遊,彼於邪見淨除其心。
  如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子成就身淨業,成就口、意淨業,離恚離諍,除去睡眠,無調()、貢高,斷疑、度慢,正念、正智,無有愚癡。彼心與慈俱,遍滿一方成就遊,如是,二三四方,四維上下,普周一切,心與慈俱,無結無怨,無恚無諍,極廣甚大,無量善修,遍滿一切世間成就遊。如是,悲…………心與捨俱,無結無怨,無恚無諍,極廣甚大,無量善修,遍滿一切世間成就遊。
  如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,便得四安隱住處,云何為四?『有此世彼世,有善惡業報,我得此正見相應業,受持具足,身壞命終,必至善處,乃生天上。』如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第一安隱住處。復次,伽藍!『無此世彼世,無善惡業報,如是,我於現法中,非以此故為他所毀,但為正智所稱譽,精進人、正見人說其有。』如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第二安隱住處。復次,伽藍!『若有所作,必不作惡,我不念惡,所以者何?自不作惡,苦何由生?』如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第三安隱住處。復次,伽藍!『若有所作,必不作惡,我不犯世怖與不怖,常當慈愍一切世間,我心不與眾生共諍,無濁歡悅。』如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第四安隱住處。如是,伽藍!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂:得四安隱住處。」
  伽藍白世尊曰:
  「如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,得四安隱住處,云何為四?『有此世彼世,有善惡業報,我得此正見相應業,受持具足,身壞命終,必至善處,乃至天上。』如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第一安隱住處。復次,瞿曇!『若無此世彼世,無善惡業報,我於現法中,非以此故為他所毀,但為正智所稱譽,精進人、正見人說其有。』如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第二安隱住處。復次,瞿曇!『若有所作,必不作惡,我不念惡,所以者何?自不作惡,苦何由生?』如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得第三安隱住處。復次,瞿曇!『若有所作,必不作惡,我不犯世怖與不怖,常當慈愍一切世間,我心不與眾生共諍,無濁歡悅。』如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂:得第四安隱住處。如是,瞿曇!多聞聖弟子心無結無怨,無恚無諍,是謂得四安隱住處。
  瞿曇!我已知,善逝!我已解。世尊!我等盡[]自歸佛、法及比丘眾,唯願世尊受我等為優婆塞!從今日始,終身自歸,乃至命盡。」
  佛說如是,一切伽藍人及諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

巴利英譯經文:

Kalama Sutta

To the Kalamas

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at Kesaputta, a town of the Kalamas. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative — the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan — has arrived at Kesaputta. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

So the Kalamas of Kesaputta went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of them bowed down to him and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence.

As they sat there, the Kalamas of Kesaputta said to the Blessed One, "Lord, there are some priests & contemplatives who come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. And then other priests & contemplatives come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. They leave us absolutely uncertain & in doubt: Which of these venerable priests & contemplatives are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?"

"Of course you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course you are in doubt. When there are reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born. So in this case, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering' — then you should abandon them.

"What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this greedy person, overcome by greed, his mind possessed by greed, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this aversive person, overcome by aversion, his mind possessed by aversion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this deluded person, overcome by delusion, his mind possessed by delusion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Unskillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameworthy, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Criticized by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to harm & to suffering, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to harm & to suffering. That is how it appears to us."

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them.

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this ungreedy person, not overcome by greed, his mind not possessed by greed, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this unaversive person, not overcome by aversion, his mind not possessed by aversion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this undeluded person, not overcome by delusion, his mind not possessed by delusion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Skillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameless, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Praised by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to welfare & to happiness, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to welfare & to happiness. That is how it appears to us."

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness" — then you should enter & remain in them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones — thus devoid of greed, devoid of ill will, undeluded, alert, & resolute — keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with compassion. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with compassion: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with appreciation. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with appreciation: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease — free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both respects.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now."

"So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease — free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both ways.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now.

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

巴利語經文

AN.3.66(另版AN.3.65)/ 5. Kesamuttisutta
   66. Eva me suta– eka samaya bhagavā kosalesu cārika caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaghena saddhi yena kesamutta nāma kālāmāna nigamo tadavasari. Assosu kho kesamuttiyā kālāmā – “samao khalu, bho, gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulā pabbajito kesamutta anuppatto. Ta kho pana bhavanta gotama eva kalyāo kittisaddo abbhuggato– ‘itipi so bhagavā …pe… sādhu kho pana tathārūpāna arahata dassana hotī’”ti.
   Atha kho kesamuttiyā kālāmā yena bhagavā tenupasakamisu; upasakamitvā appekacce bhagavanta abhivādetvā ekamanta nisīdisu, appekacce bhagavatā saddhi sammodisu, sammodanīya katha sāraīya vītisāretvā ekamanta nisīdisu, appekacce yena bhagavā tenañjali paāmetvā ekamanta nisīdisu, appekacce nāmagotta sāvetvā ekamanta nisīdisu, appekacce tuhībhūtā ekamanta nisīdisu. Ekamanta nisinnā kho te kesamuttiyā kālāmā bhagavanta etadavocu
   “Santi, bhante, eke samaabrāhmaā kesamutta āgacchanti. Te sakayeva vāda dīpenti jotenti, parappavāda pana khusenti vambhenti paribhavanti omakkhi karonti. Aparepi, bhante, eke samaabrāhmaā kesamutta āgacchanti Tepi sakayeva vāda dīpenti jotenti, parappavāda pana khusenti vambhenti paribhavanti omakkhi karonti. Tesa no, bhante amhāka hoteva kakhā hoti vicikicchā– ‘ko su nāma imesa bhavata samaabrāhmaāna sacca āha, ko musā’”ti? “Alañhi vo, kālāmā, kakhitu ala vicikicchitu. Kakhanīyeva pana vo hāne vicikicchā uppannā”.
   “Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samao no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā viññugarahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya savattantī’”ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyātha.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, lobho purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā”ti?
   “Ahitāya, bhante”.
   “Luddho panāya, kālāmā, purisapuggalo lobhena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto pāampi hanati, adinnampi ādiyati, paradārampi gacchati, musāpi bhaati, parampi tathattāya samādapeti, ya sa hoti dīgharatta ahitāya dukkhāyā”ti.
   “Eva, bhante”.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, doso purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā”ti?
   “Ahitāya, bhante”.
   “Duṭṭho panāya, kālāmā, purisapuggalo dosena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto pāampi hanati, adinnampi ādiyati, paradārampi gacchati, musāpi bhaati, parampi tathattāya samādapeti, ya sa hoti dīgharatta ahitāya dukkhāyā”ti.
   “Eva, bhante”.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, moho purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā”ti?
   “Ahitāya, bhante”.
   “Mūho panāya, kālāmā, purisapuggalo mohena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto pāampi hanati, adinnampi ādiyati, paradārampi gacchati, musāpi bhaati, parampi tathattāya samādapeti, ya sa hoti dīgharatta ahitāya dukkhāyā”ti.
   “Eva, bhante”.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā”ti?
   “Akusalā, bhante”.
   “Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā”ti?
   “Sāvajjā, bhante”.
   “Viññugarahitā vā viññuppasatthā vā”ti?
   “Viññugarahitā, bhante”.
   “Samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya savattanti, no vā? Katha vā ettha hotī”ti
   “Samattā, bhante, samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya savattantīti. Eva no ettha hotī”ti.
   “Iti kho, kālāmā, ya ta avocumhā – ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā! Mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena, mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samao no garūti. Yadā tumhe kālāmā attanāva jāneyyātha– ‘ime dhammā akusalā, ime dhammā sāvajjā, ime dhammā viññugarahitā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya savattantīti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyāthā’ti, iti ya ta vutta, idameta paicca vutta.
   “Etha tumhe, kālāmā, mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena, mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samao no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā viññuppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya savattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyātha.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, alobho purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati hitāya vā ahitāya vā”ti?
   “Hitāya, bhante”.
   “Aluddho panāya, kālāmā, purisapuggalo lobhena anabhibhūto apariyādinnacitto neva pāa hanati, na adinna ādiyati, na paradāra gacchati, na musā bhaati, na parampi tathattāya samādapeti ya sa hoti dīgharatta hitāya sukhāyā”ti.
   “Eva, bhante”.
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, adoso purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati …pe… amoho purisassa ajjhatta uppajjamāno uppajjati …pe… hitāya sukhāyā”ti.
   “Eva bhante”
   “Ta ki maññatha, kālāmā, ime dhammā kusalā vā akusalā vā”ti?
   “Kusalā bhante”.
   “Sāvajjā vā anavajjā vā”ti?
   “Anavajjā, bhante”.
   “Viññugarahitā vā viññuppasatthā vā”ti?
   “Viññuppasatthā, bhante”.
   “Samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya savattanti no vā? Katha vā ettha hotī”ti?
   “Samattā, bhante, samādinnā hitāya sukhāya savattanti. Eva no ettha hotī”ti.
   “Iti kho, kālāmā, ya ta avocumhā– ‘etha tumhe, kālāmā! Mā anussavena, mā paramparāya, mā itikirāya, mā piakasampadānena, mā takkahetu, mā nayahetu, mā ākāraparivitakkena, mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, mā bhabbarūpatāya, mā samao no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha– ime dhammā kusalā, ime dhammā anavajjā, ime dhammā viññuppasatthā, ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya savattantīti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyāthā’ti, iti ya ta vutta idameta paicca vutta.
   “Sa kho so, kālāmā, ariyasāvako eva vigatābhijjho vigatabyāpādo asammūho sampajāno patissato mettāsahagatena cetasā eka disa pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiya, tathā tatiya, tathā catuttha, iti uddhamadho tiriya sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvanta loka mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati. Karuāsahagatena cetasā …pe… muditāsahagatena cetasā …pe… upekkhāsahagatena cetasā eka disa pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiya tathā tatiya, tathā catuttha, iti uddhamadho tiriya sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvanta loka upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati.
   “Sa kho so, kālāmā, ariyasāvako eva averacitto eva abyāpajjhacitto eva asakiliṭṭhacitto eva visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti. ‘Sace kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukatadukkaāna kammāna phala vipāko, athāha kāyassa bhedā para maraā sugati sagga loka upapajjissāmī’ti, ayamassa pahamo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “‘Sace kho pana natthi paro loko, natthi sukatadukkaāna kammāna phala vipāko, athāha diṭṭheva dhamme avera abyāpajjha anīgha sukhi attāna pariharāmī’ti, ayamassa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “‘Sace kho pana karoto karīyati pāpa, na kho panāha kassaci pāpa cetemi. Akaronta kho pana ma pāpakamma kuto dukkha phusissatī’ti, ayamassa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “‘Sace kho pana karoto na karīyati pāpa, athāha ubhayeneva visuddha attāna samanupassāmī’ti, ayamassa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.
   “Sa kho so, kālāmā, ariyasāvako eva averacitto eva abyāpajjhacitto eva asakiliṭṭhacitto eva visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme ime cattāro assāsā adhigatā hontī”ti.
   “Evameta, bhagavā, evameta, sugata! Sa kho so, bhante, ariyasāvako eva averacitto eva abyāpajjhacitto eva asakiliṭṭhacitto eva visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti. ‘Sace kho pana atthi paro loko, atthi sukatadukkaāna kammāna phala vipāko, athāha kāyassa bhedā para maraā sugati sagga loka upapajjissāmī’ti, ayamassa pahamo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “‘Sace kho pana natthi paro loko, natthi sukatadukkaāna kammāna phala vipāko, athāha diṭṭheva dhamme avera abyāpajjha anīgha sukhi attāna pariharāmī’ti, ayamassa dutiyo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “Sace kho pana karoto karīyati pāpa, na kho panāha– kassaci pāpa cetemi, akaronta kho pana ma pāpakamma kuto dukkha phusissatī’ti, ayamassa tatiyo assāso adhigato hoti.
   “‘Sace kho pana karoto na karīyati pāpa, athāha ubhayeneva visuddha attāna samanupassāmī’ti, ayamassa catuttho assāso adhigato hoti.
   “Sa kho so, bhante, ariyasāvako eva averacitto eva abyāpajjhacitto eva asakiliṭṭhacitto eva visuddhacitto. Tassa diṭṭheva dhamme ime cattāro assāsā adhigatā honti. “Abhikkanta, bhante …pe… ete maya, bhante, bhagavanta saraa gacchāma dhammañca bhikkhusaghañca. Upāsake no, bhante, bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāupete saraa gate”ti. Pañcama.