如果我們還沒有解脫,仍必須在生死苦海中輪迴,那麼我們必然會關心自己來生將投生在何處。

    如果我們沒有足夠的善業或波羅蜜,那也只能隨業投生,半點由不得我們。

    但如果,我們具足「信」、「施」、「戒」、「聞」、「慧」等功德善業,那麼我們可以隨意決定來生投生在人間的富貴家庭或貴族,甚至是欲界的任何一層天,但要投生在色界或無色界天,就必須配合相應的禪定之功,這是因果自然法則,絲毫不爽。

    這篇經文給予我們珍貴的啟示就是: 「信」、「施」、「戒」、「聞」、「慧」等法財都應平衡發展增長,如此方可確保自己來生的幸福與解脫的可能性。

    本經是佛陀解釋鹿住女居士的父親持梵行戒,而其叔父則以智慧見長,因兩人的修持各有所長,故而佛陀皆授記說他們來生都會轉生到兜率天,並證得二果。

    佛陀並在本經中告誡我們不應該去揣度、臆測、戲論他人的成就與未來的際遇,這麼做只會徒增自己的疑蓋,且不慎犯下謗佛、謗法、謗僧的重惡業,惹禍上身。因為我們不具有像如來的十力,所以我們不可能窺其堂奧,這世上唯有如來能清楚洞悉每一個人的成就與未來的際遇。

選譯自《雜阿含經》第990

喬正一白話譯於西元2015/11/08八關齋戒日

    我是這樣聽聞的:

    有一次,佛陀住在古印度的舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園林裡。

    某日清晨,阿難尊者著衣持缽,走入舍衛城,挨家挨戶依序乞食化緣,他來到了一位名叫鹿住的女居士家門前。

    鹿住看見阿難尊者前來,很快地舖好了床座,邀請阿難尊者入內就座。

    當鹿住向阿難頂禮後,便起身坐在一旁,她問阿難尊者:「為什麼大家都說世尊是知法的一切智者?我的父親富蘭那一直修習梵行,過著離欲清淨的生活,他不佩戴香花等裝飾品,遠離一切男女的情愛性欲;而我的叔父梨師達多並未修梵行,然而他能少欲知足。如今他們二人都已往生了,現在世尊卻說他們二人都會投生於同一個世界之中,在同一處受生,也都會於來生後世證得到斯陀含果,轉生於兜率天中,只要再投生於世間一次,就能徹底脫離生死的苦海。

    可是,阿難尊者,我不懂,我的問題是:一個有修梵行和另一個沒有修梵行的人,怎麼都會轉生於同一個世界?於同一處受生?

    阿難尊者說:「姐妹啊!這個話題先暫且打住吧。因為你不知道世間眾生各種根器資質的差別,唯有如來能知道。」

    阿難尊者說完後,便起身離去。

    當阿難尊者回到了精舍,收好衣缽,洗完腳,便到佛陀的住處,他向佛陀頂禮後,坐在一旁,把鹿住與他之間的對話都詳細的向世尊報告。

    佛陀說:「那個鹿住懂什麼?她怎麼可能知道世間眾生的根器資質優劣?阿難啊!這世上唯有如來能詳知其中的奧秘。

    阿難!假設有一個犯戒的人,他對心解脫、慧解脫都不能如實地知道,然而他能把所犯的戒滅除無餘,息沒無餘,欲盡無餘;

    又假設另有一個犯戒的人,他對於心解脫與慧解脫都能如實地知道,而且他也能把所犯的戒都滅除無餘、息沒無餘、欲盡無餘。

    如果有人去揣度、臆測這二種犯戒的人,並說:『此人有如此行為,那個人有如此的行為,所以他們都應該投生於同一世界之中,於同一處受生,有相同的來生。』如果此人這樣臆測、戲論的話,他就會在漫漫生死輪迴的長夜中吃盡苦頭。

    阿難!那個犯了戒的人,雖然他所犯的戒能滅除無餘、息沒無餘、欲盡無餘,但由於他對心解脫與慧解脫都不能如實地了知,應知此人是退步墮落,而不是提昇進步,所以我會說此人在修行上是退步者;

    阿難!另一個犯了戒的人,他對於所犯的戒也都能滅除無餘、息沒無餘、欲盡無餘,對於心解脫與慧解脫也都能如實地知道,所以應知此人是向上提昇,我會說此人是向上提昇者。

    除非是如來,這二人之間的差別,又有誰能詳知呢?

    所以,阿難!不要去揣度、臆測別人的成就,喜歡這麼做的人本身就是一種不善,會惹禍上身,只有如來能詳知他人的成就。

    就如同我提到的這二個犯戒的人一樣,二種持戒的人也是同樣的情形。

    假設有一個持戒的人,他對於心解脫與慧解脫都不能如實知道,但他所持的戒很清淨;或是一個心中有掉舉的人,他對於心解脫與慧解脫也不能如實知道,但他對所生起的掉舉都能滅除無餘;或是心中有瞋恨的人,他對於心解脫與慧解脫都不能如實地知道,然而他對所生起的瞋恨都能滅除無餘;或是心中受困於於貪欲的人,他對於心解脫與慧解脫不能如實地知道,他對所生起的苦貪也都能滅除無餘。其他如心中有穢污或清淨的人,也都是如我前面所述的情形一樣,這一切都只有如來才能知曉其中的差異。

    阿難!那個鹿住愚癡、沒有智慧,所以才會對如來所說的法心生狐疑。阿難!如來說的法,又豈會有差別或自相矛盾?」

    阿難回答說:「不會的,世尊!」

    佛陀說:「善哉!善哉!如來所說的法是絕不可能會有差別或自相矛盾的情形!

    阿難!那個富蘭那所持的戒,假設梨師達多也能同樣受持的話,那麼富蘭那是不可能知道梨師達多來生所轉生的世界、或如何受生、或後世來生的際遇將是如何。

    如果梨師達多所成就的智慧,富蘭那也具有的話,那麼梨師達多也不可能知道富蘭那將往生在哪一個世界、如何受生、後世來生的際遇又將是如何。

    阿難!富蘭那持戒較清淨(因為有梵行),而梨師達多則是智慧較為殊勝,他們各有強項長處。如今他們都已過世,我才會授記說他們二人將會同生於一個世界中,於同一處受生,來生後世也都會證得斯陀含果,轉生於兜率陀天中,他們都只要再來此世間受生一次,就能徹底地解脫生死苦海。

    他們二人之間未來命運的差別,若不是如來,又有誰能知道呢?

    所以,阿難啊!不要去揣度、臆測、戲論任何人的成就,如果妄加揣度、臆測、戲論的話,只會自招耗損,因為只有如來才能知道每一個人真正的成就與未來的際遇。」

    當佛陀說完後,阿難尊者聽聞佛陀所說的法,心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

原文/

如是我聞:一時,佛住舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。爾時、尊者阿難,晨朝著衣持缽,詣舍衛城次 第乞食,至鹿住優婆夷舍。鹿住優婆夷遙見尊者阿難,疾敷床座。白言:「尊者阿難令坐」!時 鹿住優婆夷稽首禮阿難足,退住一面。白尊者阿難:「云何言世尊知法?我父富蘭那,先修梵行 ,離欲清淨,不著香華,遠諸凡鄙;叔父梨師達多,不修梵行。然其知足,二俱命終,而今世尊 俱記二人,同生一趣,同一受生,同於後世得斯陀含,生兜率天,一來世間,究竟苦邊。云何阿 難!修梵行、不修梵行,同生一趣,同一受生,同其後世」?阿難答言:「姊妹!汝今且停,汝 不能知眾生世間根之差別。如來悉知眾生世間根之優劣」。如是說已,從坐起去。

  時尊者阿難還精舍,舉衣缽,洗足已,往詣佛所,稽首佛足,退坐一面,以鹿住優婆夷所說 ,廣白世尊。佛告阿難:「彼鹿住優婆夷,云何能知眾生世間根之優劣?阿難!如來悉知眾生世 間根之優劣。阿難!或有一犯戒,彼於心解脫,慧解脫不如實知,彼所起犯戒,無餘滅,無餘沒 ,無餘欲盡。或有一犯戒,於心解脫,慧解脫如實知,彼所起犯戒,無餘滅,無餘沒,無餘欲盡 [P698] 。於彼籌量者言:此亦有如是法,彼亦有是法,此則應俱同生一趣,同一受生,同一後世。彼如 是籌量者,得長夜非義饒益苦。阿難!彼犯戒者,於心解脫,慧解脫不如實知,彼所起犯戒,無 餘滅,無餘沒,無餘欲盡。當知此人是退非勝進,我說彼人為退分。阿難!有犯戒,彼於心解脫 ,慧解脫如實知,彼於所起犯戒,無餘滅,無餘沒,無餘欲盡,當知是人勝進不退,我說彼人為 勝進分。自非如來,此二有間,誰能悉知?是故阿難!莫籌量人人而取人,善籌量人人而病,人 籌量人人自招其患,唯有如來能知人耳。如二犯戒,二持戒亦如是。彼於心解脫,慧解脫不如實 知,彼所起持戒,無餘滅。若掉動者彼於心解脫,慧解脫不如實知,彼所起掉,無餘滅。彼若瞋 恨者,彼於心解脫,慧解脫不如實知,彼所起瞋恨無餘滅。若苦貪者,彼於心解脫、慧解脫如實 知,彼所起苦貪無餘滅。穢污,清淨,如上說;乃至如來能知人人。阿難!鹿住優婆夷愚癡、少 智,而於如來一向說法,心生狐疑。云何阿難!如來所說豈有二耶」?阿難白佛:「不也,世尊 」!佛告阿難:「善哉!善哉!如來說法若有二者,無有是處。阿難!若富蘭那持戒,梨師達多 亦同持戒者,所生之趣,富蘭那所不能知;梨師達多為生何趣,云何受生?云何後世?若梨師達 多所成就智,富蘭那亦成就此智者,梨師達多亦不能知:彼富蘭那當生何趣?云何受生?後世云 何?阿難!彼富蘭那持戒勝,梨師達多智慧勝,彼俱命終,我說二人同生一趣,同一受生,後世 亦同,是斯陀含,生兜率天,一來生此,究竟苦邊。彼二有間,自非如來誰能得知!是故阿難! [P699] 莫量人人!量人人者,自生損減,唯有如來能知人耳」。佛說此經已,尊者阿難聞佛所說,歡喜 奉行。

 巴利語經文
AN.10.75/ 5. Migasālāsuttaṃ
   75. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Atha kho āyasmā ānando pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya yena migasālāya upāsikāya nivesanaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho migasālā upāsikā yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho migasālā upāsikā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca–
   “Kathaṃ kathaṃ nāmāyaṃ, bhante ānanda, bhagavatā dhammo desito aññeyyo, yatra hi nāma brahmacārī ca abrahmacārī ca ubho samasamagatikā bhavissanti abhisamparāyaṃ. Pitā me, bhante, purāṇo brahmacārī hoti ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. So kālaṅkato bhagavatā byākato– ‘sakadāgāmī satto tusitaṃ kāyaṃ upapanno’ti. Pitāmaho me, bhante, isidatto abrahmacārī ahosi sadārasantuṭṭho. Sopi kālaṅkato bhagavatā byākato– ‘sakadāgāmī satto tusitaṃ kāyaṃ upapanno’ti.
   “Kathaṃ kathaṃ nāmāyaṃ, bhante ānanda, bhagavatā dhammo desito aññeyyo, yatra hi nāma brahmacārī ca abrahmacārī ca ubho samasamagatikā bhavissanti abhisamparāyan”ti? “Evaṃ kho panetaṃ, bhagini, bhagavatā byākatan”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā ānando migasālāya upāsikāya nivesane piṇḍapātaṃ gahetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi. Atha kho āyasmā ānando pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca–
   “Idhāhaṃ bhante, pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya yena migasālāya upāsikāya nivesanaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdiṃ. Atha kho, bhante, migasālā upāsikā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā maṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho, bhante, migasālā upāsikā maṃ etadavoca –
   ‘Kathaṃ kathaṃ nāmāyaṃ, bhante ānanda, bhagavatā dhammo desito aññeyyo, yatra hi nāma brahmacārī ca abrahmacārī ca ubho samasamagatikā bhavissanti abhisamparāyaṃ. Pitā me, bhante, purāṇo brahmacārī ahosi ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. So kālaṅkato bhagavatā byākato sakadāgāmī satto tusitaṃ kāyaṃ upapannoti. Pitāmaho me, bhante, isidatto abrahmacārī ahosi sadārasantuṭṭho. Sopi kālaṅkato bhagavatā byākato– sakadāgāmī satto tusitaṃ kāyaṃ upapannoti.
   Kathaṃ kathaṃ nāmāyaṃ, bhante ānanda, bhagavatā dhammo desito aññeyyo, yatra hi nāma brahmacārī ca abrahmacārī ca ubho samasamagatikā bhavissanti abhisamparāyan’ti? Evaṃ vutte ahaṃ, bhante, migasālaṃ upāsikaṃ etadavocaṃ– ‘evaṃ kho panetaṃ, bhagini, bhagavatā byākatan’”ti.
   “Kā cānanda, migasālā upāsikā bālā abyattā ammakā ammakapaññā, ke ca purisapuggalaparopariye ñāṇe?
   “Dasayime, ānanda, puggalā santo saṃvijjamānā lokasmiṃ. Katame dasa? Idhānanda, ekacco puggalo dussīlo hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, yatthassa taṃ dussīlyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi akataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi akataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi appaṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ na labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā hānāya pareti, no visesāya; hānagāmīyeva hoti, no visesagāmī.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo dussīlo hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa taṃ dussīlyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā visesāya pareti, no hānāya; visesagāmīyeva hoti, no hānagāmī.
   “Tatrānanda, pamāṇikā pamiṇanti– ‘imassapi teva dhammā, aparassapi teva dhammā. Kasmā nesaṃ eko hīno eko paṇīto’ti? Tañhi tesaṃ, ānanda, hoti dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya.
   “Tatrānanda, yvāyaṃ puggalo dussīlo hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa taṃ dussīlyaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, puggalo amunā purimena puggalena abhikkantataro ca paṇītataro ca. Taṃ kissa hetu? Imaṃ hānanda, puggalaṃ dhammasoto nibbahati. Tadantaraṃ ko jāneyya, aññatra tathāgatena! Tasmātihānanda, mā puggalesu pamāṇikā ahuvattha mā puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhittha. Khaññati hānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhanto. Ahaṃ vā, ānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇheyyaṃ yo vā panassa mādiso.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo sīlavā hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa taṃ sīlaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi akataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi akataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi appaṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ na labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā hānāya pareti, no visesāya; hānagāmīyeva hoti, no visesagāmī.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo sīlavā hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa taṃ sīlaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā visesāya pareti, no hānāya; visesagāmīyeva hoti, no hānagāmī.
   “Tatrānanda, pamāṇikā pamiṇanti …pe… ahaṃ vā, ānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇheyyaṃ yo vā panassa mādiso.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo tibbarāgo hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa so rāgo apariseso nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi akataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi akataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi appaṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ na labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā hānāya pareti, no visesāya; hānagāmīyeva hoti, no visesagāmī.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo tibbarāgo hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa so rāgo apariseso nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā visesāya pareti, no hānāya; visesagāmīyeva hoti, no hānagāmī.
   “Tatrānanda pamāṇikā pamiṇanti …pe… ahaṃ vā, ānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇheyyaṃ yo vā panassa mādiso.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo kodhano hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa so kodho apariseso nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi akataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi akataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi appaṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ na labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā hānāya pareti, no visesāya; hānagāmīyeva hoti, no visesagāmī.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo kodhano hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa so kodho apariseso nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā visesāya pareti, no hānāya; visesagāmīyeva hoti, no hānagāmī.
   “Tatrānanda, pamāṇikā pamiṇanti …pe… ahaṃ vā, ānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇheyyaṃ yo vā panassa mādiso.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo uddhato hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa taṃ uddhaccaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi akataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi akataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi appaṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ na labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā hānāya pareti, no visesāya; hānagāmīyeva hoti, no visesagāmī.
   “Idha panānanda, ekacco puggalo uddhato hoti. Tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa taṃ uddhaccaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati. Tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā visesāya pareti, no hānāya; visesagāmīyeva hoti, no hānagāmī.
   “Tatrānanda pamāṇikā pamiṇanti– ‘imassapi teva dhammā, aparassapi teva dhammā. Kasmā nesaṃ eko hīno eko paṇīto’ti? Tañhi tesaṃ, ānanda, hoti dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya.
   “Tatrānanda, yvāyaṃ puggalo uddhato hoti tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa taṃ uddhaccaṃ aparisesaṃ nirujjhati, tassa savanenapi kataṃ hoti, bāhusaccenapi kataṃ hoti, diṭṭhiyāpi paṭividdhaṃ hoti, sāmāyikampi vimuttiṃ labhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, puggalo amunā purimena puggalena abhikkantataro ca paṇītataro ca. Taṃ kissa hetu Imaṃ hānanda, puggalaṃ dhammasoto nibbahati. Tadantaraṃ ko jāneyya aññatra tathāgatena! Tasmātihānanda, mā puggalesu pamāṇikā ahuvattha; mā puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhittha. Khaññati hānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇhanto. Ahaṃ vā, ānanda, puggalesu pamāṇaṃ gaṇheyyaṃ yo vā panassa mādiso.
   “Kā cānanda, migasālā upāsikā bālā abyattā ammakā ammakapaññā, ke ca purisapuggalaparopariye ñāṇe! Ime kho, ānanda, dasa puggalā santo saṃvijjamānā lokasmiṃ.
   “Yathārūpena, ānanda, sīlena purāṇo samannāgato ahosi tathārūpena sīlena isidatto samannāgato abhavissa, nayidha purāṇo isidattassa gatimpi aññassa. Yathārūpāya cānanda, paññāya isidatto samannāgato ahosi tathārūpāya paññāya purāṇo samannāgato abhavissa, nayidha isidatto purāṇassa gatimpi aññassa. Iti kho, ānanda, ime puggalā ubho ekaṅgahīnā”ti. Pañcamaṃ.