本經與巴利聖典《相應部》第35經第244篇《苦法經》—《Dukkhadhammasuttaṃ》的內容完全相同。

    本經是敘述佛陀教導比丘弟子如何守護根門,防範五欲的侵擾,使世間的貪愛及惡不善法永遠不能惱亂其心。

    全經可分為三大段,第一段從開始到「乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法不漏其心」;第二段由「譬如聚落邊有奈林」至「乃至不令世間貪憂、惡不善法不漏其心」;餘下的經文是第三段。

    本經中,佛陀用了四個淺近的譬喻來為比丘們說明法義。經文中提到的鈍根多聞聖弟子,我們可以視作初果、二果弟子,因為他們的五下分結尚未斷除,因此他們在面對誘人的外境時仍可能會產生貪愛,遇到不順的外境也可能會產生反感、厭惡、瞋恚;話雖如此,但這些尚未完全斷除煩惱的多聞聖弟子因為已如實了知四聖諦,所以他們清楚甚麼是苦,不會顛倒妄想以苦為樂而認賊作父;他們清楚產生苦的因緣是甚麼,苦從而處而生;也明白這些苦應消滅,也知道苦的止息處即是解脫涅槃;知道應以八正道、三十七菩提分來滅苦。

    因此,初果以上的聖弟子都不會再因世俗的其他宗教、欲樂、邪見、天魔外道、哲學科學等所動搖而退轉,只會朝向解脫涅槃的目標邁進。

選譯自《雜阿含經》第1173

喬正一白話譯於西元2018/2/14農曆1229日除夕前八關齋戒日

    我是這樣聽聞的: 

    這是佛陀暫時住在古印度拘睒彌國瞿師羅園林發生的事。 

    當時,世尊對諸比丘說:「多聞聖弟子(能努力修行學法,一心向解脫的比丘)因為已真正領悟四聖諦,對於一切苦法的集(產生)、滅(消滅)、味(愛樂染著)、給人帶來的後患、應該遠離五欲等等,都能徹底體會、如實領悟,所以便視五欲猶如火坑;因為他這樣看待五欲,對於五欲,他的貪戀、欲愛、欲念、執著就永遠不會覆蓋、遮障、蒙蔽他的心,他就會知道當內六根接觸外塵境而產生欲心或生起欲心之處(因緣),他就會很小心謹慎,因警醒而自我防閉;如此一來,欲、惡不善法就無法趁隙而入得逞,心就不會隨外境而紛亂,不再生起煩惱。 

    什麼是多聞聖弟子對於一切苦法的集、滅、味、患、離都能如實知見?如果這名多聞聖弟子對於這是『苦聖諦』能如實體悟,這是苦的生起(產生)『苦集諦』能真正體悟,『此苦應滅』能真正體悟,這是『苦滅道跡聖諦』能真正體悟,那麼這名多聞聖弟子對於一切苦法的集、滅、味、患、離就算是已如實知見。 

    所謂多聞聖弟子視五欲如火坑,這就好比:附近的某一處聚落旁邊有一個大火中燒的深坑,但卻沒有煙焰,這時,有一個畏苦怕死的聰明人很清楚:『這裡有火坑,媕Y大火中燒,我若不小心掉進去,必死無疑。』於是他會自動遠離那處火坑;同樣的道理,多聞聖弟子視五欲如火坑,也是這樣。 

    又好比:在某處聚落的旁邊,有一座充滿荊棘的森林,這時有人要進入荊棘林中工作,因為前後左右到處都是刺人的荊棘,此人為避免受到荊棘的傷害,於是他在一舉一動、進退之間,都保持正念專注,念茲在茲、保持警醒,小心翼翼,不敢稍有差池;多聞聖弟子也應該如此,如果比丘住在聚落城市中,於早晨著衣持鉢入村乞食之際,都應善護其身,善執其心,正念安住,正念而行,正念明目,正念觀察,遇到充滿誘惑的外境(人、事、物)時都不要生起對五欲的染著,不要讓五欲的利刺去傷害聖法律。

    什麼是傷害聖法律的利刺?這裡所謂的利刺就是指:令人愉悅、充滿誘惑、讓人愛戀的色境,這就是傷害聖法律的利刺。 

    為什麼令人愉悅、充滿誘惑、讓人愛戀的色境會是傷害聖法律的利刺?這是因為五欲的本質使然。當比丘們出外托缽,就必須接觸人群,其中有男有女,有貧有富,所乞得之物自然也有好有劣;當眼睛看見美好的色境就容易產生愛念,於是乎滋養欲樂;其餘如耳識聲……鼻識香……舌識味……身識觸等都是一樣的道理;如果不能善護根門,便容易產生種種分別與顛倒妄想,因而產生愛念執著,滋養欲樂,而傷害了聖法律。 

    於是乎,這名多聞聖弟子於所行處、所住處,都能逆防、逆知,……乃至不令世間的貪憂、惡不善法等紛擾其心。 

    可能有時候,這名多聞聖弟子會不小心偶失正念,因而生起惡、不善覺(貪、瞋、癡),滋養了貪欲、滋養了瞋恚、滋養了愚癡,這名鈍根的多聞聖弟子雖一時產生了煩惱,但因為他平時持戒嚴謹,端心正行,所以很快便能消滅覆蓋遮障其心的煩惱雜染,就好比在極熱的鐵丸上潑灑少許的冷水,這些微量的水一下子便乾掉。 

    也因此,就算國王、大臣,或其親族以豐厚誘人的俸祿當作誘惑,勸誘這名多聞聖弟子還俗:『何必這麼辛苦?幹嘛剃髮、執持瓦缽器、身著袈裟、挨家挨戶乞食?不如還俗,做一名在家人,可以享受五欲之樂,還可以布施行善作福。』 

    如何?比丘!你們認為這名多聞聖弟子當真會因此還俗嗎?」 

    「不可能的!!因為這名多聞聖弟子,對於一切苦法的集、滅、味、患、離都已如實知見,視五欲如火坑,……乃至世間的貪憂、惡不善法都已永不遮覆其心,舉凡其所行、所想、所聞等等都是以離欲、解脫涅槃為其目標,他們都不會蠢到自甘墮落再去沾染煩惱,因此當他們面對國王、大臣、親族以豐厚誘人的俸祿去勸誘他們捨戒還俗,他們也絕不可能再為所動,想要讓他們退轉還俗是絕不可能發生的事。」

    佛陀對諸比丘說:「善哉!善哉!沒錯!沒錯!因為這名多聞聖弟子的心已長時間修習正法,受持聖戒,就好比恆河因物理自然定律而流向東方,如果有人妄想將恆河給截斷,令其改道向西流注,你們認為這可能嗎?」 

    「不可能,世尊!因為恆河水的物理自然傾向長時間東流,妄想令其西流,就如愚公移山,到頭來也只是徒勞無功而已。」 

    「沒錯,這名多聞聖弟子既已長時間修習正法,受持聖戒,一心一意向於遠離,……所以如果想要令其退轉還俗,也是不可能的事。」 

    當佛陀說完此經之後,諸比丘聽聞佛陀所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。 

原文/雜阿含1173

  如是我聞: 
  一時,佛住拘睒彌國瞿師羅園。 
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘: 
  「多聞聖弟子於一切苦法,集、滅、味、患、離如實知見,見五欲猶如火坑;如是觀察五欲已,於五欲,貪、欲愛、欲念、欲著不永覆心,知其欲心行處、住處而自防閉;行處、住處逆防閉已,隨其行處、住處,世間貪憂、惡不善法不漏其心。 
  云何名為多聞聖弟子於一切苦法,集、滅、味、患、離如實知見?多聞聖弟子於此苦聖諦如實知,此苦集,此苦滅,此苦滅道跡聖諦如實知,是名多聞聖弟子於一切苦法,集、滅、味、患、離如實知見。 
  云何多聞聖弟子見五欲如火坑,……乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法不永覆心?譬如:近一聚落邊有深坑滿中盛火,無有煙焰,時,有士夫不愚、不癡,聰明、黠慧,樂樂、厭苦,樂生、惡死,彼作是念:『此有火坑,滿中盛火,我若墮中,必死無疑。』於彼生遠、思遠、欲遠,如是,多聞聖弟子見五欲如火坑,……乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法不永覆心,若行處、住處,逆防、逆知,……乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法不漏其心。 
  譬如:聚落邊,有奈林,多諸棘刺,時,有士夫入於林中,有所營作,入林中已,前後、左右、上下,盡有棘刺,爾時,士夫正念而行,正念來去,正念明目,正念端視,正念屈身,所以者何?莫令利刺傷壞身故。多聞聖弟子亦復如是,若依聚落、城邑而住,晨朝著衣持鉢,入村乞食,善護其身,善執其心,正念安住,正念而行,正念明目,正念觀察,所以者何?莫令利刺傷聖法律。 
  云何利刺傷聖法律?謂:可意、愛念之色,是名利刺傷聖法律。 
  云何是可意、愛念之色傷聖法律?謂:五欲功德:眼識色生愛念,長養欲樂;耳識聲……鼻識香……舌識味……身識觸生愛念,長養欲樂,是名可愛念色傷聖法律。 
  是名多聞聖弟子所行處、所住處,逆防、逆知,……乃至不令世間貪憂、[]不善法以漏其心。 
  或時,多聞聖弟子{}[]於正念,生惡不善覺,長養欲、長養恚、長養癡,是鈍根多聞聖弟子雖起集滅以欲覆心,譬如:鐵丸燒令極熱,以少水灑,尋即乾消,如是,多聞聖弟子鈍根,生念尋滅。 
  如是,多聞聖弟子如是行,如是住,若王、大臣,若親[]往詣其所,請以俸祿,語言:『男子!何用剃髮,執持瓦器,身著袈裟,家家乞食為?不如安慰,服五欲樂,行施作福。』 
  云何,比丘!多聞聖弟子,國王、大臣、諸親、檀越請以俸祿,彼當還戒、退減以不?」 
  答曰:「不也,所以者何?多聞聖弟子,於一切苦法,集、滅、味、患、離如實知見故,見火坑譬五欲,……乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法,不永覆心,行處、住處,逆防、逆知,……乃至世間貪憂、惡不善法,不漏其心,若復為國王、大臣、親族請以俸祿,還戒、退減,無有是處。」 
  佛告諸比丘: 
  「善哉!善哉!彼多聞聖弟子其心長夜臨趣、流注、浚輸,向於遠離,向於離欲,{}[]於涅槃、寂靜、捨離,樂於涅槃,於有漏處寂滅、清涼,若為國王、長者、親族所請,還戒、退減者,無有是處,餘得大苦。 
  譬如:琲e長夜臨趣、流注、浚輸東方,多眾斷截,欲令臨趣、流注、浚輸西方,寧能得不?」 
  答言:「不能,世尊!所以者何?恆水長夜流注東方,欲令西流,未而可得,彼諸大眾徒辛苦耳。」 
  「如是,多聞聖弟子長夜臨趣、流注、浚輸,向於遠離,……乃至欲令退減無有是處,徒辛苦耳。」 
  佛說此經已,諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。 

 

巴利語經文
SN.35.244(
另版SN.35.203)/(7). Dukkhadhammasuttaṃ 
   244. Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabbesaṃyeva dukkhadhammānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tathā kho panassa kāmā diṭṭhā honti, yathāssa kāme passato, yo kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapariḷāho, so nānuseti. Tathā kho panassa cāro ca vihāro ca anubuddho hoti, yathā carantaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā nānusenti. 
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabbesaṃyeva dukkhadhammānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti? ‘Iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā… iti saññā… iti saṅkhārā… iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti– evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sabbesaṃyeva dukkhadhammānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. 
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno kāmā diṭṭhā honti? Yathāssa kāme passato, yo kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapariḷāho, so nānuseti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, aṅgārakāsu sādhikaporisā puṇṇā aṅgārānaṃ vītaccikānaṃ vītadhūmānaṃ. Atha puriso āgaccheyya jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikūlo. Tamenaṃ dve balavanto purisā nānābāhāsu gahetvā, taṃ aṅgārakāsuṃ upakaḍḍheyyuṃ. So iticīticeva kāyaṃ sannāmeyya. Taṃ kissa hetu? Ñātañhi, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa imaṃ cāhaṃ aṅgārakāsuṃ papatissāmi, tatonidānaṃ maraṇaṃ vā nigacchissāmi maraṇamattaṃ vā dukkhanti. Evameva kho bhikkhave bhikkhuno aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā diṭṭhā honti, yathāssa kāme passato, yo kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapariḷāho, so nānuseti. 
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno cāro ca vihāro ca anubuddho hoti, yathā carantaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā nānussavanti? Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso bahukaṇṭakaṃ dāyaṃ paviseyya. Tassa puratopi kaṇṭako, pacchatopi kaṇṭako, uttaratopi kaṇṭako, dakkhiṇatopi kaṇṭako, heṭṭhatopi kaṇṭako, uparitopi kaṇṭako. So satova abhikkameyya, satova paṭikkameyya– ‘mā maṃ kaṇṭako’ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yaṃ loke piyarūpaṃ sātarūpaṃ, ayaṃ vuccati ariyassa vinaye kaṇṭako”ti. Iti viditvā saṃvaro ca asaṃvaro ca veditabbo. 
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, asaṃvaro hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati parittacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti …pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā …pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme adhimuccati, appiyarūpe dhamme byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati parittacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, asaṃvaro hoti. 
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, saṃvaro hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti …pe… jivhā rasaṃ sāyitvā …pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe dhamme na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati appamāṇacetaso, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, saṃvaro hoti. 
   “Tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno evaṃ carato evaṃ viharato kadāci karahaci satisammosā uppajjanti, pāpakā akusalā sarasaṅkappā saṃyojaniyā, dandho, bhikkhave, satuppādo. Atha kho naṃ khippameva pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti. 
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso divasaṃsantatte ayokaṭāhe dve vā tīṇi vā udakaphusitāni nipāteyya. Dandho, bhikkhave, udakaphusitānaṃ nipāto, atha kho naṃ khippameva parikkhayaṃ pariyādānaṃ gaccheyya. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, tassa ce bhikkhuno evaṃ carato, evaṃ viharato kadāci karahaci satisammosā uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā sarasaṅkappā saṃyojaniyā, dandho, bhikkhave, satuppādo. Atha kho naṃ khippameva pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno cāro ca vihāro ca anubuddho hoti; yathā carantaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā nānussavanti. Tañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṃ evaṃ carantaṃ evaṃ viharantaṃ rājāno vā rājamahāmattā vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñātī vā sālohitā vā, bhogehi abhihaṭṭhuṃ pavāreyyuṃ– ‘ehi, bho purisa, kiṃ te ime kāsāvā anudahanti, kiṃ muṇḍo kapālamanucarasi, ehi hīnāyāvattitvā bhoge ca bhuñjassu, puññāni ca karohī’ti. So vata, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ caranto evaṃ viharanto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. 
   “Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, gaṅgā nadī pācīnaninnā pācīnapoṇā pācīnapabbhārā. Atha mahājanakāyo āgaccheyya kuddāla-piṭakaṃ ādāya– ‘mayaṃ imaṃ gaṅgaṃ nadiṃ pacchāninnaṃ karissāma pacchāpoṇaṃ pacchāpabbhāran’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu kho so mahājanakāyo gaṅgaṃ nadiṃ pacchāninnaṃ kareyya pacchāpoṇaṃ pacchāpabbhāran”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”. “Taṃ kissa hetu”? “Gaṅgā, bhante, nadī pācīnaninnā pācīnapoṇā pācīnapabbhārā; sā na sukarā pacchāninnā kātuṃ pacchāpoṇā pacchāpabbhārā. Yāvadeva ca pana so mahājanakāyo kilamathassa vighātassa bhāgī assā”ti. “Evameva kho, bhikkhave, tañce bhikkhuṃ evaṃ carantaṃ evaṃ viharantaṃ rājāno vā rājamahāmattā vā mittā vā amaccā vā ñātī vā sālohitā vā bhogehi abhihaṭṭhuṃ pavāreyyuṃ– ‘ehi, bho purisa, kiṃ te ime kāsāvā anudahanti, kiṃ muṇḍo kapālamanucarasi, ehi hīnāyāvattitvā bhoge ca bhuñjassu, puññāni ca karohī’ti. So vata, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ caranto evaṃ viharanto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Yañhi taṃ, bhikkhave, cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ vivekaninnaṃ vivekapoṇaṃ vivekapabbhāraṃ, tathā hīnāyāvattissatīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī”ti. Sattamaṃ.