本經與《中阿含經》第154經《婆羅婆堂經》及巴利聖典《長部》第27經《世界初始經》(Aggaññasuttaṃ)等經文的內容完全相同。

    本經的內容是佛陀闡明種姓階級都是世間法,並沒有誰比誰來得高貴。在佛教中,高貴與低賤的區別標準不是論出身與階級,而是決定於人類善與惡的行為。

    在本經中,佛陀也提到了世界是如何產生的奇妙歷程,地球最初的人類又是如何演化的奇妙因緣。

    最後,佛陀更強調證得阿羅漢果絕不是靠出身、特權、階級,任何人、任何種()姓、任何階級、任何出身,只要肯勤修戒定慧,都有證得解脫的可能性。

選譯自《長阿含經》第5經《小緣經》

喬正一白話譯於西元2019/1/20農曆十二月十五日布薩八關齋戒日

    我是這樣聽聞的: 

    當時,佛陀與一千兩百五十位大比丘一起暫時住在古印度的舍衛國清信園林鹿母講堂裡。 有二名原本篤信梵天的婆羅門,後來以堅固的信心來參訪佛陀,並表示願意追隨佛陀加入僧團出家修道。這兩名婆羅門的名字分別是:婆悉吒與婆羅墮。 

    有一天,世尊走出禪修的靜室房,在講堂之上來回經行。當時,婆悉吒看見佛陀正在經行,隨即趕緊去找他的朋友婆羅墮,對他說:「你知道嗎?如來現在正在講堂上經行,我們可以一起去找世尊,聽聞如來說法。」 

    於是,婆羅墮隨即與婆悉吒一同前往拜見世尊,他們一起跪在地上,額頭觸地,頂禮佛足,然後便起身隨佛陀身後一起經行。 

    世尊問婆悉吒:「你們二人原本都是出身自婆羅門種姓階級,後來以堅固的信心於我法中出家修道?」 

    「是的。」 

    「那麼,你們在我法中出家修道,可曾遭到其他諸婆羅門的譴責、誹謗與辱罵?」 

    「當然有!蒙佛大恩,我們二人加入僧團出家修道,但也的確遭受其他諸婆羅門的譏笑、辱罵及誹謗。」 

    「哦?他們說了些什麼呢?」 

    「他們說:『我等婆羅門種姓乃世界第一,是最高尚的階級,其餘者皆為卑劣的階級;我們的種姓清白,其餘者皆屬黑冥。我等婆羅門種姓都出自梵天之口而生,於今生中得清淨,後世亦清淨,你們二人腦筋有問題嗎?為什麼如此想不開?竟捨高貴的種姓,去加入那個瞿曇的異端邪教?』世尊!他們就是用這些難聽的話來呵責詆毀我。」

    佛陀對婆悉吒說:「這些人都是如禽獸畜生般愚冥無知,狂妄自稱自己最高尚,鄙視其他人;他們只會矮化他人、抬高自己。婆悉吒!我無上正真道中並沒有所謂的種姓階級,所以僧團的成員不會有歧視、鄙視他人的憍慢之心,世間俗法有此差別,但我出世聖法卻沒有這些東西。如果沙門、婆羅門自恃種姓高貴,懷憍慢之心,那麼這種人於我法中將永遠不得成就無上正覺。若能捨離種姓階級意識,除憍慢心,那麼才有可能於我法中得成道證,堪受正法。一般凡夫俗人都會鄙視低賤的階級,但我法卻不會這樣。」 

    佛陀說:「有四姓種姓階級,但這四姓階級中,都有善人及惡人,也都有智者所讚嘆的善行,以及智者所譴責的惡行。這四姓階級分別是:剎利種姓(國王貴族)、婆羅門種姓(祭司)、居士種姓、首陀羅種姓。

    婆悉吒!我相信你一定有聽過剎利種姓階級中有殺生者,有盜竊者,有邪淫亂者,有欺妄者,有兩舌者,有惡口者,有綺語者,有慳貪者,有嫉妒者,有邪見者;其他婆羅門種姓、居士種姓、首陀羅種姓亦皆如是,都存在雜染十惡行。

    婆悉吒!凡不善行必有不善報,為黑冥惡行則必有黑冥惡報。假使業力因緣果報的法則只單獨存在於剎利、居士、首陀羅種姓階級中,而不存在於婆羅門種姓階級中,那麼我就會承認『婆羅門種姓乃世界第一,是最高尚的階級,其餘者皆為卑劣的階級;婆羅門的種姓清白,其餘者皆屬黑冥。婆羅門種姓都出自梵天之口而生,於今生中得清淨,後世亦清淨』這種說法是正確的。

    但假使行不善行必有不善報,為黑冥惡行必有黑冥報,這樣的業力因緣果報法則放諸婆羅門種姓、剎利、居士、首陀羅種姓都一樣存在,那麼婆羅門種姓就沒有資格獨稱:『婆羅門種姓最清淨,最高尚,世界第一。』 

    婆悉吒!假設剎利種姓中有不殺者,有不盜、不邪淫、不妄語、不兩舌、不惡口、不綺語、不慳貪、不嫉妒、不邪見;而婆羅門種姓、居士、首陀羅種姓亦皆如是,四姓階級的眾生都可能同修十善業行。那麼凡行善法者必有善報,行清白行者必有白報。

    假使此種業力因緣果報的法則獨存在於婆羅門種姓階級之中,而不存在於剎利、居士、首陀羅種姓階級,那麼婆羅門種姓階級者就有資格稱:『婆羅門種姓最清淨,最高尚,世界第一。』;但假使四姓階級都同受此業力因緣果報法則的拘束,那麼婆羅門就沒有資格獨稱:『婆羅門種姓最清淨,最高尚,世界第一。』」 

    佛陀告訴婆悉吒:「你現在所看見的婆羅門種姓的婚姻嫁娶及生產,都與一般世人無異,可是他們卻莫名其妙誑稱:『婆羅們是梵種,從梵天的口中出生,今生得清淨,後世亦清淨。』

    婆悉吒!你應該可以發現,我的弟子出家以前都來自不同的種姓,他們的出身各異,但如果他們於我法中出家修道,若有人問他們:『你的種姓為何?』我的弟子一定都會回答:『我是沙門釋種子。』亦或可自稱:『我是婆羅門種姓,親從法口而生,從法化生,今生得清淨,後世亦清淨。』為什麼我的弟子會這樣說呢?因為如來為世間眼,『法』為世間智,為世間的法則,為世間的梵,為世間的法輪,為世間的甘露,為世間的法主。所以,他們並沒有說錯。 

    婆悉吒!剎利種姓中依然有人篤信佛、如來、至真、等正覺,十號具足;有人篤信『法』:有人篤信如來法微妙清淨,現可修行,說無時節,示(闡釋)泥洹(解脫涅槃)(修行方法),智者所知,非凡愚之輩所能理解;有人篤信僧,僧伽性善質直,道果成就,眷屬成就,佛真弟子法法成就。所謂僧眾者,都具備『戒成就』、『定成就』、『慧成就』、『解脫成就』、『解脫知見成就』,僧團中有四雙八輩的聖人,分別是:向須陀洹、得須陀洹,向斯陀含、得斯陀含,向阿那含、得阿那含,向阿羅漢、得阿羅漢,以上就是四雙八輩,他們都是如來的弟子眾,他們都是可敬可尊之輩,為世間的無上福田,應受人類及天神的供養;他們都篤信『戒律』,都聖戒具足,無有缺漏,無諸瑕隙,亦無點污,為智者所稱讚,具足善寂。

    婆悉吒!諸婆羅門種姓階級、居士、首陀羅種姓階級也應該有如是篤信佛、信法、信僧眾以及成就聖戒的佛弟子。婆悉吒!剎利種姓階級中也有供養阿羅漢之人,也有恭敬禮拜阿羅漢之人,婆羅門、居士、首陀羅之中也都有人供養阿羅漢,恭敬禮拜阿羅漢。」 

    佛陀又對婆悉吒說:「我的親族釋迦種族亦事奉波斯匿王,宗事禮敬這個國家,可是波斯匿王卻又來供養禮敬我,波斯匿王不會這麼想:『沙門瞿曇出身於豪族,我族姓卑下;沙門瞿曇出身大財富、大威德之家,我出生於貧窮鄙陋的小國家,所以我才來供養禮敬如來。』波斯匿王之所以來供養禮敬如來,是因為他於法觀法,明辨真偽,故而心生淨信。 

    婆悉吒!我現在就為你解說四姓階級產生的因緣:

    當天地世界到了結束的時刻,也就是末劫盡壞之時,一切的眾生都會趕緊勤修禪定,他們死後皆往生到色界第二禪天的光音天,他們自然化生,以禪念禪悅為食,身有光明自照,可神通飛空往來自在。

    之後,大地被大水所淹沒,全都變成了水,而且到處都是水。那個時候,已經沒有日月、星辰,也沒有晝夜、年月歲數,一切唯有大黑暗。

    又之後,大水漸漸退去,又變成了大地,這時有一些光音天的天神的福報享用完了,祂們死後都轉生於大地世間。雖然祂們轉生於此,但祂們仍沿襲前生的習性,以禪念禪悅為食,有神足通,可飛行在空中,身放光明自照,於大地住久,祂們各自稱:『眾生,眾生。』,以上,就是地球最初的眾生。

    後來,大地湧出甘泉,狀如酥蜜。那一批初來大地的天人之中有一些個性比較輕躁,看見此泉之後,暗忖:『咦?這是什麼東西?嚐嚐看吧。』於是,祂們把手指伸入泉中嚐試味道。祂們驚覺甘泉味道甜美,於是再三品嚐,越來越覺得美味,便以手捧挽起泉水開始飲用。祂們越來越喜歡甘泉的美味,便產生貪愛與執著,祂們貪得無厭,而其餘的眾生也開始仿效食之。接著,祂們因為吃多了,身體開始轉變為粗重,產生堅硬的肌肉,失去了原先如天神一般俊美的容顏,也不再有神通,祂們飛不起來了,只能在大地用腳履地而行,身體的光輝逐轉消滅,於是天地又陷入一片大黑暗。 

    婆悉吒!天地大自然都有其不變的法則,在經歷過一段大黑暗期之後,接著必然有日月、星辰出現在虛空之中,然後有晝夜晦明、日月歲數的區隔。

    這時,眾生只吃『地味』,一直住在世間大地上,那些吃得比較多的人,長相容顏就比較難看醜陋,而吃得比較少的人,容貌就比較俊美,於是人類開始有了美醜之分。

    而那些俊美的人類因自負於自身的美貌,開始產生驕慢心,看不起長相醜陋者;而那些其醜陋者也開始心生嫉妒,憎恨那些美貌者。於是,眾生開始彼此鬥爭,產生了是非紛擾,這時,甘泉因為眾生造下的共惡業而自然枯涸。

    沒多久,大地又產生麁厚的『地肥』這種食物,也很香美,可以食用,只是其美味已大不如以前的甘泉。這時,眾生又開始食之,也一直住在世間大地上。同樣的,那些吃得比較多者,容貌轉為醜陋,而吃得比較少者,容貌就比較好看。因為美貌與醜陋並存於世間,於是眾生之間是非不斷,遂產生諍訟,而『地肥』這個天然的食物又因為眾生彼此鬥爭的共惡業而消失不見,並且也不再生長了。 

    之後,大地又生出自然的稻米,而且沒有糟糠稻殼,色味具足,香潔可食。這時,眾生又取來食用,也一直久住於世間大地,這個時候眾生開始有男女之分,男與女彼此相視,漸漸產生情欲與性慾,因為忍不住衝動而彼此發生性關係。而其餘的眾生撞見後,因看不下去而譴責:『你們的行為太糟糕了。』為了懲罰這些男女,隨即將他們給排擠驅逐於眾人外三個月,然後再讓他們回來。」 

    佛陀說:「世間的某些價值觀是有時空相對性的,過去眾生認為不對的事,到了今天卻都認為是對的。那些放縱情慾、性慾的眾生,他們面對身心的慾望卻處於不知所措的窘境,於是他們極度縱欲,不分時間地點,沒有節制。這時,眾生有了慚愧羞恥心,他們認為不應該在眾人面前隨時隨地發生性關係,遂建造房屋遮醜,世間於是開始有了房舍。但眾生仍沉醉在非法性慾之中,淫欲轉增,便開始有了懷胎,於是世間的懷胎始於這個時候。 

    這時,眾生仍以自然的粳米為主食,而且因為善業福報的緣故,隨取隨生,取之不盡用之不竭。而眾生之中那些比較懶惰的人,心想:『朝食朝取,暮食暮取,實在太累、太麻煩了,我應該一併取之,當做一日的食物。』於是,這些懶人併取稻米。

    而其他的同伴來找他們取米時,這些懶人回答:『我已一次取用了,可供一日食用,如果你要取稻米,自可隨意。』

    其他人發現這些懶人很聰明,能預先儲存糧食,他們也想仿效積糧,準備供三日的糧食。就這樣,有人儲存三日糧,有人儲存五日糧,因為大家開始競相儲積糧食,粳米便開始荒穢,轉變為有糟糠稻榖的稻米。

    這時,眾生發現這種現象,開始擔憂資源分配不均,於是他們開始有了權利的概念,他們決定劃分大地,別立幖幟,各自宣告主權。

    婆悉吒!由此因緣,於是世間開始有了田地,這時,眾生各自有各自的田地,各立圍牆,而擁有較少土地資源的人漸漸產生強盜與偷盜心,開始竊取他人的禾稼財產。其他的眾生發現這個現象,都譴責說:『這種行為是錯的,你自己有田地,卻貪得無厭,盜取他人財物,從今以後,不可以再這樣了!

    可是,那些偷盜的眾生仍不悔改,依然繼續偷盜,其他的眾生又嚴重呵責,可是仍無法制止偷盜的行為,於是他們出手打那些偷盜者,而被打的人又到處惡人先告狀:『此人打我。』

    這時,其他眾人見此二人諍吵不已,都感到很煩,懊惱嘆道:『眾生開始轉惡,世間產生穢惡不淨,這都是生、老、病、死之源,煩惱苦報下墮三惡道的因緣,因為有田地導致有此諍訟。我們應該趕緊立一個可以治理眾人的君王,讓他來審判眾人之事,審理諍訟事件。』 

    於是,眾人從中推選一人,此人形體高大,容貌端正俊美,具有威德,眾人授權託付他為領袖。

    這個當領袖的人,開始治理眾人之事,審理眾人的諍訟事件,於是眾人共集稻米來供給他,當做答謝他辛苦治理眾人的酬勞。這個當領袖的人又以善言慰勞眾人,眾人聽聞之後,皆大歡喜,皆稱讚他:『善哉!大王!善哉!大王!』於是,世間便有了『王』這個名詞,而這個『王』又以正法治理人民,所以叫『剎利』(帝王、貴族),於是世間開始有了『剎利』這個名詞產生。 

    接著,眾人之中有一個很特別的人心想:『家庭為大患,家庭為毒刺,我應該捨棄居家,獨自住在山林之中,閑靜修道。』於是,此人隨即捨棄居家,走入山林,寂默思惟禪修。此人在每天清晨時,手持缽器走入村中乞食,而眾人看見他,都樂於供養他,並歡喜稱讚:『善哉!此人能捨棄家居,獨處山林,靜默修道,捨離眾惡。』於是,世間開始有了『婆羅門』這個名詞產生。

    而婆羅門當中也有不樂於閑靜禪坐禪思惟者,這種人便回到人間,以誦習經典為業,對人又自稱:『我是不禪人(不修禪定的修行人)。』於是,世人稱這種人為不禪婆羅門。因為他們走入人間,所以又稱為『人間(世俗)婆羅門』,於是,世間開始有了婆羅門種姓階級。 

    眾生之中有人喜歡擅長做生意,累積財寶,於是眾人稱這種人為居士。 

    眾生之中有人很靈巧,很專業,或者很會創作,於是世間開始有首陀羅工巧之名。 

    婆悉吒!世間雖有四種姓之名,現在又有了第五種沙門眾的名稱,因為剎利眾之中,有的人自厭己法,剃除鬚髮,身披法服,於是開始有了『沙門』這個稱號產生;而婆羅門種姓、居士種姓、首陀羅種姓等有一樣有人自厭己法,剃除鬚髮,身穿法服修道,他們都叫做『沙門』。

    婆悉吒!在剎利種姓之中,如果有人身行不善業,口行不善業,意行不善業,此人死後必受苦報。其他如婆羅門種姓、居士種姓、首陀羅種姓也都一樣;反之,剎利種姓之中,如果有人身行善業,口、意行善業,這些人死後必受樂報。其他如婆羅門、居士、首陀羅種姓之中,也都一樣,如果有人身行善業,口、意行善業,死後都必受樂報。

    婆悉吒!如果剎利種姓之中,有人同時身行善與惡的二種雜染業行,口、意同時造下善與惡二種雜染業行,他們死後都將承受苦樂雜染報。其他婆羅門種姓、居士種姓、首陀羅種姓,也都一樣,如果造下參雜善與惡的雜染業行,死後都將承受苦樂雜染報。

    婆悉吒!剎利種姓之中,如果有人剃除鬚髮,身穿法服修解脫道,修七覺支,不久便能獲證解脫,因為這些來自貴族的子弟身穿法服出家,修無上梵行,於當生中能自身作證:『我歷劫的生死輪迴到今天已結束,我已成就最圓滿的梵行,我該修的功課都已完成,我死後不會再有下一生。』其他如婆羅門、居士、首陀羅種姓也都一樣,如果有人剃除鬚髮,身穿法服修解脫道,修七覺支,很快便能證果。婆悉吒!在四種姓中都會出現三明六通、福慧都圓滿具足的阿羅漢,這些人才有資格被稱作五種姓中最高尚、最清淨、世界第一之人。」

    佛陀又對婆悉吒說:「大梵天王曾經誦出以下的偈頌: 

『生中剎利勝,能捨種姓去;明行成就者,世間最第一。』」

    佛陀最後告訴婆悉吒:「大梵天王說得很好,祂說得說很對。我可以馬上印證大梵天王說的話,因為我如來、至真也會說同樣的偈語:

『生中剎利勝,能捨種姓去;明行成就者,世間最第一。』」

    當世尊說完以上的開示之後,婆悉吒、婆羅墮當場獲證無漏心解脫,證得阿羅漢果。他們聽聞佛陀所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。 
 

原文/

長阿含5/小緣經
  如是我聞: 
  一時,佛在舍衛國清信園林鹿母講堂,與大比丘眾千二百五十人俱。 
  爾時,有二婆羅門以堅固信往詣佛所,出家為道,一名婆悉吒,二名婆羅墮。 
  爾時,世尊於靜室出,在講堂上彷徉經行。 
  時,婆悉吒見佛經行,即尋速疾詣婆羅墮,而語之言: 
  「汝知不耶?如來今者出於靜室,堂上經行,我等可共詣世尊所,儻聞如來有所言說。」 
  時,婆羅墮聞其語已,即共詣世尊所,頭面禮足,隨佛經行。 
  爾時,世尊告婆悉吒曰: 
  「汝等二人出婆羅門種,以信堅固於我法中出家修道耶?」 
  答曰:「如是。」 
  佛言: 
  「婆羅門!今在我法中出家為道,諸婆羅門得無嫌責汝耶?」 
  答曰: 
  「唯然!蒙佛大恩出家修道,實自為彼諸婆羅門所見嫌責。」 
  佛言:「彼以何事而嫌責汝?」 
  尋白佛言: 
  「彼言:『我婆羅門種最為第一,餘者卑劣;我種清白,餘者黑冥。我婆羅門種出自梵天,從梵口生,於現法中得清淨解,後亦清淨,汝等何故捨清淨種,入彼瞿曇異法中耶?』世尊!彼見我於佛法中出家修道,以如此言而呵責我。」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「汝觀諸人愚冥無識猶如禽獸,虛假自稱:『婆羅門種最為第一,餘者卑劣;我種清白,餘者黑冥。我婆羅門種出自梵天,從梵口生,現得清淨,後亦清淨。』婆悉吒!今我無上正真道中不須種姓,不恃吾我憍慢之心,俗法須此,我法不爾。若有沙門、婆羅門自恃種姓,懷憍慢心,於我法中終不得成無上證也。若能捨離種姓,除憍慢心,則於我法中得成道證,堪受正法。人惡下流,我法不爾。」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「有四姓種,善惡居之,智者所舉,智者所責,何謂為四?一者剎利種,二者婆羅門種,三者居士種,四者首陀羅種。婆悉吒!汝聽剎利種中有殺生者,有盜竊者,有淫亂者,有欺妄者,有兩舌者,有惡口者,有綺語者,有慳貪者,有嫉妒者,有邪見者;婆羅門種、居士種、首陀羅種亦皆如是,雜十惡行。婆悉吒!夫不善行有不善報,為黑冥行則有黑冥報。若使此報獨在剎利、居士、首陀羅種,不在婆羅門種者,則婆羅門種應得自言:『我婆羅門種最為第一,餘者卑劣;我種清白,餘者黑冥。我婆羅門種出自梵天,從梵口生,現得清淨,後亦清淨。』若使行不善行有不善報,為黑冥行有黑冥報,必在婆羅門種、剎利、居士、首陀羅種者,則婆羅門不得獨稱:『我種清淨,最為第一。』 
  婆悉吒!若剎利種中有不殺者,有不盜、不淫、不妄語、不兩舌、不惡口、不綺語、不慳貪、不嫉妒、不邪見;婆羅門種、居士、首陀羅種亦皆如是,同修十善。夫行善法必有善報,行清白行必有白報。若使此報獨在婆羅門,不在剎利、居士、首陀羅者,則婆羅門種應得自言:『我種清淨,最為第一。』若使四姓同有此報者,則婆羅門不得獨稱:『我種清淨,最為第一。』」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「今者現見婆羅門種嫁娶產生,與世無異,而作詐稱:『我是梵種,從梵口生,現得清淨,後亦清淨。』婆悉吒!汝今當知:今我弟子,種姓不同,所出各異,於我法中出家修道,若有人問:『汝誰種姓?』當答彼言:『我是沙門釋種子也。』亦可自稱:『我是婆羅門種,親從口生,從法化生,現得清淨,後亦清淨。』所以者何?大梵名者即如來號,如來為世間眼,{}為世間智,為世間法,為世間梵,為世間法輪,為世間甘露,為世間法主。 
  婆悉吒!若剎利種中有篤信於佛、如來、至真、等正覺,十號具足;篤信於法:信如來法微妙清淨,現可修行,說無時節,示泥洹要,智者所知,非是凡愚所能及教;篤信於僧,性善質直,道果成就,眷屬成就,佛真弟子法法成就。所謂眾者,戒眾成就,定眾、慧眾、解脫眾、解脫知見眾成就,向須陀洹、得須陀洹,向斯陀含、得斯陀含,向阿那含、得阿那含,向阿羅漢、得阿羅漢,四雙八輩,是為如來弟子眾也,可敬可尊,為世福田,應受人供[];篤信於戒,聖戒具足,無有缺漏,無諸瑕隙,亦無點污,智者所稱,具足善寂。婆悉吒!諸婆羅門種、居士、首陀羅種亦應如是篤信於佛,信法、信眾,成就聖戒。婆悉吒!剎利種中亦有供養羅漢,恭敬禮拜者,婆羅門、居士、首陀羅亦皆供養羅漢,恭敬禮拜。」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「今我親族釋種亦奉波斯匿王,宗事禮敬,波斯匿王復來供養禮敬於我,彼不念言:『沙門瞿曇出於豪族,我姓卑下;沙門瞿曇出大財富、大威德家,我生下窮鄙陋小家故,致供養禮敬如來也。』波斯匿王於法觀法,明識真偽,故生淨信,致敬如來耳。 
  婆悉吒!今當為汝說四姓本緣:天地始終,劫盡壞時,眾生命終皆生光音天,自然化生,以念為食,光明自照,神足飛空。其後,此地盡變為水,無不周遍。當於爾時,無復日月、星辰,亦無晝夜、年月歲數,唯有大冥。其後,此水變成大地,光音諸天福盡命終,來生此間。雖來生此,猶以念食,神足飛空,身光自照,於此住久,各自稱言:『眾生,眾生。』其後,此地甘泉涌出,狀如酥蜜。彼初來天性輕{}[]者,見此泉已,默自念言:『此為何物?可試嘗之。』即內指泉中,而試嘗之。如是再三,轉覺其美,便以手抄自恣食之。如是樂著,遂無厭足,其餘眾生復效食之。如是再三,復覺其美,食之不已,其身轉麁,肌肉堅䩕,失天妙色,無復神足,履地而行,身光轉滅,天地大冥。 
  婆悉吒!當知天地常法,大冥之後,必有日月、星{}[]現於虛空,然後方有晝夜晦明、日月歲數。爾時,眾生但食地味,久住世間,其食多者,顏色麁醜,其食少者,色猶悅澤,好醜端正。於是,始有其端正者生憍慢心,輕醜陋者。其醜陋者生嫉惡心,憎端正者。眾生於是各共忿諍,是時,甘泉自然枯涸。其後,此地生自然地肥,色味具足,香潔可食。是時,眾生復取食之,久住世間。其食多者,顏色麁醜,其食少者,色猶悅澤。其端正者生憍慢心,輕醜陋者,其醜陋者生嫉惡心,憎端正者。眾生於是各共諍訟,是時,地肥遂不復生。 
  其後,此地復生麁厚地肥,亦香美可食,不如前者。是時,眾生復取食之,久住世間。其食多者,色轉麁醜,其食少者,色猶悅澤。端正醜陋,迭相是非,遂生諍訟,地肥於是遂不復生。 
  其後,此地生自然粳米,無有糠糩,色味具足,香潔可食。是時,眾生復取食之,久住於世,便有男女,互共相視,漸有情欲,轉相親近。其餘眾生見已,語言:『汝所為非,汝所為非。』即排擯驅遣出於人外,過三月已,然後還歸。」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「昔所非者,今以為是。時,彼眾生習於非法,極情恣欲,無有時節。以慙()愧故,遂造屋舍,世間於是始有房舍。翫習非法,淫欲轉增,便有胞胎,因不淨生,世間胞胎始於是也。 
  時,彼眾生食自然粳米,隨取隨生,無可窮盡。時,彼眾生有懈惰者,默自念言:『朝食朝取,暮食暮取,於我勞勤,今欲併取,以終一日。』即尋併取。於後,等侶喚共取米,其人答曰:『我已併取,以供一日,汝欲取者,自可隨意。』彼人復自念言:『此人黠慧,能先儲積,我今亦欲積糧,以供三日。』其人即儲三日餘糧。有餘眾生復來語言:『可共取米。』答言:『吾已先積三日餘糧,汝欲取者可往自取。』彼人復念:『此人黠慧,先積餘糧,以供三日,吾當效彼,積糧以供五日。』即便往取。 
  時,彼眾生競儲積已,粳米荒穢,轉生糠糩,刈已不生。時,彼眾生見此不悅,遂成憂迷,各自念言:『我本初生,以念為食,神足飛空,身光自照,於世久住。其後,此地甘泉涌出,狀如酥蜜,香美可食,我等時共食之,食之轉久,其食多者顏色麁醜,其食少者色猶悅澤,由是食故,使我等顏色有異,眾生於是各懷是非,迭相憎嫉,是時甘泉自然枯竭。其後,此地生自然地肥,色味具足,香美可食,時,我曹等復取食之,其食多者顏色麁醜,其食少者顏色悅澤,眾生於是復懷是非,迭相憎嫉,是時,地肥遂不復生。其後,復生麁厚地肥,亦香美可食,時,我曹等復取食之,多食色麁,少食色悅,復生是非,共相憎嫉,是時,地肥遂不復現。更生自然粳米,無有糠糩,時,我曹等復取食之,久住於世。其懈怠者,競共儲積,由是粳米荒穢,轉生糠糩,刈已不生,今當如何?復自相謂言:『當共分地,別立幖幟。』即尋分地,別立幖幟。 
  婆悉吒!{}[]此因緣,始有田地名生。彼時,眾生別封田地,各立疆畔,漸生盜心,竊他禾稼。其餘眾生見已,語言:『汝所為非,汝所為非,自有田地,而取他物,自今已後,勿復爾也。』其彼眾生猶盜不已,其餘眾生復重呵責而猶不已,便以手加之,告諸人言:『此人自有田稼,而盜他物。』其人復告:『此人打我。』時,彼眾人見二人諍已,愁憂不悅,懊惱而言:『眾生轉惡,世間乃有此不善,生穢惡不淨,此是生、老、病、死之原,煩惱苦報墮三惡道,由有田地致此諍訟。今者寧可立一人為主以治理之,可護者護,可責者責,眾共減米,以供給之,使理諍訟。』 
  時,彼眾中自選一人,形體長大,顏貌端正,有威德者,而語之言:『汝今為我等作平等主,應護者護,應責者責,應遣者遣,當共集米,以相供給。』時,彼一人聞眾人言,即與為主,斷理諍訟,眾人即共集米供給。時,彼一人復以善言慰勞眾人,眾人聞已,皆大歡喜,皆共稱言:『善哉!大王!善哉!大王!』於是,世間便有王名,以正法治民,故名剎利,於是世間始有剎利名生。 
  時,彼眾中獨有一人作如是念:『家為大患,家為毒刺,我今寧可捨此居家,獨在山林,閑靜修道。』即捨居家,入於山林,寂默思惟。至時,持器入村乞食,眾人見已,皆樂供養,歡喜稱讚:『善哉!此人能捨家居,獨處山林,靜默修道,捨離眾惡。』於是,世間始有婆羅門名生。彼婆羅門中有不樂閑靜坐禪思惟者,便入人間,誦習為業,又自稱言:『我是不禪人。』於是,世人稱不禪婆羅門。由入人間故,名為人間婆羅門,於是,世間有婆羅門種。 
  彼眾生中有人好營居業,多積財寶,因是眾人名為居士。 
  彼眾生中有多機巧,多所造作,於是世間始有首陀羅工巧之名。 
  婆悉吒!今此世間有四種名,第五有沙門眾名,所以然者,婆悉吒!剎利眾中,或時,有人自厭己法,剃除鬚髮,而披法服,於是始有沙門名生;婆羅門種、居士種、首陀羅種,或時,有人自厭己法,剃除鬚髮,法服修道,名為沙門。婆悉吒!剎利種中,身行不善,口行不善,意行不善,身壞命終必受苦報。婆羅門種、居士種、首陀羅種,身行不善,口行不善,意行不善,身壞命終必受苦報。婆悉吒!剎利種中,有身行善,口、意行善,身壞命終必受樂報。婆羅門、居士、首陀羅種中,身行善,口、意行善,身壞命終必受樂報。婆悉吒!剎利{眾中}[種中],身行二種,口、意行二種,身壞命終受苦樂報。婆羅門種、居士種、首陀羅種,身行二種,口、意行二種,身壞命終受苦樂報。 
  婆悉吒!剎利種中,有剃除鬚髮,法服修道,修七覺意,道成不久,所以者何?彼族姓子法服出家,修無上梵行,於現法中自身作證:『生死已盡,梵行已立,所作已辦,不復受有。』婆羅門、居士、首陀羅種中,有剃除鬚髮,法服修道,修七覺意,道成不久,所以者何?彼族姓子法服出家,修無上梵行,於現法中自身作證:『生死已盡,梵行已立,所作已辦,不復受有。』婆悉吒!此四種中皆出明行成就羅漢,於五種中為最第一。」 
  佛告婆悉吒:「梵天王頌曰: 
  『生中剎利勝,能捨種姓去,明行成就者,世間最第一。』」 
  佛告婆悉吒: 
  「此梵善說,非不善說;此梵善受,非不善受,我時即印可其言,所以者何?今我如來、至真亦說是義: 
  『生中剎利勝,能捨種姓去,明行成就者,世間最第一。』」 
  爾時,世尊說此法已,婆悉吒、婆羅墮無漏心解脫,聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。
中阿含154/婆羅婆堂經 
  我聞如是: 
  一時,佛遊舍衛國,在東園鹿子母堂。 
  爾時,有二人:婆私吒及婆羅婆梵志族,剃除鬚髮,著袈裟衣,至信捨家無家學道。諸梵志見已,極訶責數,甚急至苦,而語之曰: 
  「梵志種勝,餘者不如;梵志種白,餘者皆黑;梵志得清淨,非梵志不得清淨,梵志梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。汝等捨勝從不如,捨白從黑,彼禿沙門為黑所縛,斷種無子,是故,汝等所作大惡,極犯大過。」 
  爾時,世尊則於晡時從燕坐起,堂上來下,於堂影中露地經行,為諸比丘說甚深微妙法。尊者婆私吒遙見世尊則於晡時從燕坐起,堂上來下,於堂影中露地經行,為諸比丘說甚深微妙法。尊者婆私吒見已,語曰: 
  「賢者婆羅婆!當知:世尊則於晡時從燕坐起,堂上來下,於堂影中露地經行,為諸比丘說甚深微妙法,賢者婆羅婆!可共詣佛,或能因此從佛聞法。」 
  於是,婆私吒及婆羅婆即詣佛所,稽首作禮,從後經行。 
  世尊迴顧,告彼二人: 
  「婆私吒!汝等二梵志捨梵志族,剃除鬚髮,著袈裟衣,至信捨家無家{}[?]道,諸梵志見已,不大責數耶?」 
  彼即答曰: 
  「唯然,世尊!諸梵志見已,極訶責數,甚急至苦。」 
  世尊問曰: 
  「婆私吒!諸梵志見已,云何極訶責數,甚急至苦耶?」 
  答曰: 
  「世尊!諸梵志見我等已,而作是說:『梵志種勝,餘者不如;梵志種白,餘者皆黑;梵志得清淨,非梵志不得清淨,梵志梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。汝等捨勝從不如,捨白從黑,彼禿沙門為黑所縛,斷種無子,是故汝等所作大惡,極犯大過。』世尊!諸梵志見我等已,如是,極訶責數,甚急至苦。」 
  世尊告曰: 
  「婆私吒!彼諸梵志所說至惡,極自無賴,所以者何?謂:彼愚癡,不善曉解,不識良田,不能自知,作如是說:『我等梵志是梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。』所以者何?婆私吒!我此無上明行作證,不說生勝,不說種姓,不說憍慢,彼可我意、不可我意,因坐因水,所學經書。婆私吒!若有婚姻者,彼應說生,應說種姓,應說憍慢,彼可我意、不可我意,因坐因水,所學經書。婆私吒!若有計生、計姓、計慢者,彼極遠離於我無上明行作證。婆私吒!說生、說姓、說慢,彼可我意、不可我意,因坐因水,所學經書者,於我無上明行作證別。 
  復次,婆私吒!謂:有三種,令非一切,人人共諍,雜善不善法,彼則為聖所稱不稱,云何為三?剎利種、梵志種、居士種。婆私吒!於意云何?剎利殺生、不與取、行邪淫、妄言……乃至邪見,居士亦然,非梵志耶?」 
  答曰: 
  「世尊!剎利亦可殺生、不與取、行邪淫、妄言……乃至邪見,梵志、居士亦復如是。」 
  世尊問曰: 
  「婆私吒!於意云何?梵志離殺、斷殺、不與取、行邪淫、妄言……乃至離邪見,得正見,剎利、居士為不然耶?」 
  答曰: 
  「世尊!梵志亦可離殺、斷殺、不與取、行邪淫、妄言……乃至離邪見得正見,剎利、居士亦復如是。」 
  世尊問曰: 
  「婆私吒!於意云何?若有無量惡不善法,是剎利、居士所行,非梵志耶?若有無量善法,是梵志所行,非剎利、居士耶?」 
  答曰: 
  「世尊!若有無量惡不善法,彼剎利、居士亦可行,梵志亦復如是。若有無量善法,彼梵志亦可行,剎利、居士亦復如是。」 
  「婆私吒!若有無量惡不善法,一向剎利、居士行,非梵志者,若有無量善法,一向梵志行,非剎利、居士者,彼諸梵志可作是說:『我等梵志是梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。』所以者何?婆私吒!見梵志女始婚姻時,婚姻已後,見懷妊身時,懷妊身已後,見產生時,或童男,或童女。婆私吒!如是,諸梵志亦如世法,隨產道生,然,彼妄言{𧩄}[]謗梵天而作是說:『我等梵志是梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。』 
  婆私吒!若族姓子若干種姓、若干種名,捨若干族,剃除鬚髮,著袈裟衣,至信捨家無家,從我學道,應作是說:『我等梵志是梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。』所以者何?婆私吒!彼族姓子入我正法律中,受我正法律,得至彼岸,斷疑度惑,無有猶豫,於世尊法得無所畏,是故,彼應作是說:『我等梵志是梵天子,從彼口生,梵梵所化。』婆私吒!彼梵天者,是說如來、無所著、等正覺。梵是如來,冷是如來:無煩無熱,不離如者,是如來也。婆私吒!於意云何?諸釋下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於波斯匿拘娑羅王耶?」 
  彼則答曰:「如是,世尊!」 
  世尊問曰: 
  「婆私吒!於意云何?若諸釋下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於波斯匿拘娑羅王,如是,波斯匿拘娑羅王則於我身下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事我耶?」 
  答世尊曰: 
  「諸釋下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於波斯匿拘娑羅王者,此無奇特,若波斯匿拘娑羅王下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於世尊者,此甚奇特。」 
  世尊告曰: 
  「婆私吒!波斯匿拘娑羅王不如是意而於我身下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於我:『沙門瞿曇種族極高,我種族下;沙門瞿曇財寶甚多,我財寶少;沙門瞿曇形色至妙,我色不妙;沙門瞿曇有大威神,我威神小;沙門瞿曇有善智慧,我有惡智。』婆私吒!但波斯匿拘娑羅王愛敬於法,至重供養,為奉事故,而於我身下意,愛敬至重,供養奉事於我。」 
  爾時,世尊告{比丘?}曰: 
  「婆私吒!有時,此世皆悉敗壞,此世壞時,若有眾生生晃昱天,彼於其中妙色意生,一切支節諸根具足,以喜為食,自身光明,昇於虛空,淨色久住。婆私吒!有時,此大地滿其中水,彼大水上以風吹攪,結{}[]為精,合聚和合,猶如熟酪以抨抨乳,結{}[]為精,合聚和合。如是,婆私吒!有時,此大地滿其中水,彼大水上以風吹攪,結{}[]為精,合聚和合,從是生地味,有色香味,云何為色?猶如生酥及熟酥色,云何為味?如蜜丸味。 
  婆私吒!有時,此世還復成時,若有眾生生晃昱天,壽盡、業盡、福盡,命終生此為人。生此間已,妙色意生,一切支節諸根具足,以喜為食,自身光明,昇於虛空,淨色久住。婆私吒!爾時,世中無有日月,亦無星宿,無有晝夜,無月、半月,無時、無歲。婆私吒!當爾之時,無父無母,無男無女,又無大家,復無奴婢,唯等眾生。於是,有一眾生貪餮不廉,便作是念:『云何地味?我寧可以指抄此地味嘗。』彼時,眾生便以指抄此地味嘗。如是,眾生既知地味,復欲得食。彼時,眾生復作是念:『何故以指食此地味,用自疲勞?我今寧可以手撮此地味食之。』彼時,眾生便以手撮此地味食。 
  於彼眾生中,復有眾生見彼眾生各以手撮此地味食,便作是念:『此實為善,此實為快,我等寧可亦以手撮此地味食。』時,彼眾生即以手撮此地味食。若彼眾生以手撮此地味食已,如是、如是,身生轉厚、轉重、轉堅,若彼本時有清淨色,於是便滅,自然生闇。婆私吒!世間之法,自然有是:若生闇者,必生日月。生日月已,便生星宿。生星宿已,便成晝夜。成晝夜已,便有月、半月,有時、有歲。彼食地味,住世久遠。 
  婆私吒!若有眾生食地味多者,便生惡色,食地味少者,便有妙色。從是,知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,眾生眾生共相輕慢,言:『我色勝,汝色不如。』因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,地味便滅。地味滅已,彼眾生等便共聚集,極悲啼泣而作是語:『奈何!地味!奈何!地味!』猶如今人含消美物,不說本字,雖受持而不知義,此說觀義亦復如是。 
  婆私吒!地味滅後,彼眾生生地肥,有色香味,云何為色?猶如生酥及熟酥色,云何為味?如蜜丸味。彼食此地肥,住世久遠。 
  婆私吒!若有眾生食地肥多者,便生惡色,食地肥少者,便有妙色。從是知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,眾生眾生共相輕慢言:『我色勝,汝色不如。』因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,地肥便滅。地肥滅已,彼眾生等便共聚集,極悲啼泣而作是語:『奈何!地肥!奈何!地肥!』猶如今人為他所{}[],不說本字,雖受持而不知義,此說觀義亦復如是。 
  婆私吒!地肥滅後,彼眾生生婆羅,有色香味,云何為色?猶{}[]曇華色,云何為味?如淖蜜丸味。彼食此婆羅,住世久遠。 
  婆私吒!若有眾生食婆羅多者,便生惡色,食婆羅少者,便有妙色。從是知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,眾生眾生共相輕慢言:『我色勝,汝色不如。』因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,婆羅便滅。婆羅滅已,彼眾生等便共聚集,極悲啼泣而作是語:『奈何!婆羅!奈何!婆羅!』猶如今人苦法所觸,不說本字,雖受持而不知義,此說觀義亦復如是。 
  婆私吒!婆羅滅後,彼眾生生自然粳米,白淨無皮,亦無有䵃藁,長四寸,朝刈暮生,暮刈朝生,熟有鹽味,無有生氣,眾生食此自然粳米。如彼眾生食此自然粳米已,彼眾生等便生若干形,或有眾生而生男形,或有眾生而生女形。若彼眾生生男女形者,彼相見已,便作是語:『惡眾生生!惡眾生生!』 
  婆私吒!惡眾生生者,謂:說婦人也。若彼眾生生於男形及女形者,彼眾生等則更相伺;更相伺已,眼更相視;更相視已,則更相染;更相染已,便有煩熱;有煩熱已,便相愛著;相愛著已,便行於欲。若見行欲時,便以木石,或以杖塊而打擲之,便作是語:『咄!弊惡眾生作非法事,云何眾生共作是耶?』猶如今人迎新婦時,則以襆華散,或以華鬘垂,作如是,言:『新婦!安隱!新婦!安隱!』本所可憎,今所可愛。 
  婆私吒!若有眾生惡不淨法,憎惡羞恥,懷慚愧者,彼便離眾一日、二日……至六、七日,半月、一月……乃至一歲。婆私吒!若有眾生欲得行此不淨行者,彼便作家而作是說:『此中作惡,此中作惡。』婆私吒!是謂:初因初緣世中起家法,舊第一智,如法,非不如法,如法人尊。 
  於中,有一{}懶惰眾生,便作是念:『我今何為日日常取自然粳米?我寧可并取一日食直耶?』彼便并取一日食米。於是,有一眾生語彼眾生曰:『眾生!汝來!共行取米耶?』彼則答曰:『我已并取,汝自取去。』彼眾生聞已,便作是念:『此實為善,此實為快,我亦寧可并取明日所食米耶?』彼便并取明日米來。復有一眾生語彼眾生曰:『眾生!汝來!共行取米耶?』彼則答曰:『我已并取明日米來,汝自取去。』彼眾生聞已,便作是念:『此實為善,此實為快。我今寧可并取七日食米來耶?』時,彼眾生即便并取七日米來。如彼眾生自然粳米極取積聚,彼宿粳米便生皮䵃,刈至七日亦生皮䵃,隨所刈處,即不復生。 
  於是,彼眾生便共聚集,極悲啼泣,作如是語:『我等生惡不善之法,謂:我曹等儲畜宿米,所以者何?我等本有妙色意生,一切支節諸根具足,以喜為食,自身光明,昇於虛空,淨色久住。我等生地味,有色香味,云何為色?猶如生酥及熟酥色,云何為味?如蜜丸味。我等食地味,住世久遠。我等若食地味多者,便生惡色,食地味少者,{}[便]有妙色,從是知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,我等各各共相輕慢言:「我色勝,汝色不如。」因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,地味便滅。地味滅後,我等生地肥,有色香味,云何為色?猶如生酥及熟酥色,云何為味?如蜜丸味。我等食地肥,住世久遠。我等若食地肥多者,便生惡色,食地肥少者,便有妙色。從是知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,我等各各共相輕慢言:「我色勝,汝色不如。」因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,地肥便滅。地肥滅後,我等生婆羅,有色香味,云何為色?猶{}[?]曇華色,云何為味?如淖蜜丸味。我等食婆羅,住世久遠。我等若食婆羅多者,便生惡色,食婆羅少者,便有妙色。從是知色有勝有如,因色勝如故,我等各各共相輕慢言:「我色勝,汝色不如。」因色勝如而生輕慢及惡法故,婆羅便滅。婆羅滅後,我等生自然粳米,白淨無皮,亦無有䵃藁,長四寸,朝刈暮生,暮刈朝生,熟有鹽味,無有生氣,我等食彼自然粳米。如我等自然粳米,極取積聚,彼宿粳米便生皮䵃,刈至七日,亦生皮䵃,隨所刈處,即不復生。我等寧可造作田種,立標{}[]耶?』於是,眾生等造作田種,豎立標{}[] 
  於中,有一眾生自有稻穀,而入他田竊取他稻。其主見已,便作是語:『咄!咄!弊惡眾生,云何作是?汝自有稻,而入他田竊取他稻,汝今可去,後莫復作。』然,彼眾生復至再三竊取他稻,其主亦至再三見已,便以拳扠牽詣眾所,語彼眾曰:『此一眾生自有稻穀,而入我田竊取我稻。』然,彼一眾生亦語眾曰:『此一眾生以拳扠我牽來詣眾。』 
  於是,彼諸眾生共聚集{}[?],極悲啼泣而作是語:『我等生惡不善之法,謂:守田也,所以者何?因守田故,便共諍訟,有失有盡,有相道說,有拳相扠。我等寧可於其眾中舉一端正形色,極妙最第一者,立為田主。若可訶者,當令彼訶,若可擯者,當令彼擯,若我曹等所得稻穀,當以如法輸送與彼。』於是,彼眾生中,若有端正形色,極妙最第一者,眾便共舉,立為田主,若可訶者,彼便訶{}[],若可擯者,彼便擯棄,若有稻者,便以如法輸送與彼是田主,是田主謂之剎利也,令如法樂眾生,守護行戒是王,是王謂之王也。婆私吒!是謂:初因初緣世中剎利種,舊第一智,如法非不如法,如法人尊。 
  於是,彼異眾生以守為病,以守為癰,以守為箭{}[?],便棄捨守,依於無事,作草葉屋而學禪也。彼從無事,朝朝平旦入村邑王城而行乞食。彼多眾生見便施與,恭敬尊重,而作是語:『此異眾生以守為病,以守為癰,以守為箭刺,便棄捨守,依於無事,作草葉屋而學禪也,此諸尊捨害、惡不善法是梵志。』是梵志謂之梵志也。 
  彼眾生學禪不得禪,學苦行不得苦行,學遠離不得遠離,學一心不得一心,學精進不得精進,便捨無事,還村邑王城,作四柱屋,造立經書。彼多眾生見如是已,便不復施與、恭敬、尊重,而作是語:『此異眾生本以守為病,以守為癰,以守為箭刺,便棄捨守,依於無事,作草葉屋,而學於禪不能得禪,學苦行不得苦行,學遠離不得遠離,學一心不得一心,學精進不得精進,便捨無事,還村邑王城,作四柱屋,造立經書,此諸尊等更學博聞,不復學禪是博聞。』是博聞謂之博聞。婆私吒!是謂:初因初緣世中有梵志種,舊第一智,如法非不如法,如法人尊。 
  於是,彼異眾生各各詣諸方而作田業,是各各諸方而作田業。是各各諸方而作田業,謂之鞞舍。婆私吒!是謂:初因初緣世中有鞞舍種,舊第一智,如法非不如法,如法人尊。 
  婆私吒!世中起此三種姓已,便知有第四沙門種也。云何世中有此三種姓已,便知有第四沙門種耶?於剎利族族姓之子,能自訶{}[?]惡不善法,自厭憎惡惡不善法,剃除鬚髮,著袈裟衣,至信捨家無家學道,而作是念:『我當作沙門行於梵行。』便作沙門行於梵行。如是,梵志種族、鞞舍種族族姓之子,亦自訶{}[?]惡不善法,自厭憎惡惡不善法,剃除鬚髮,著袈裟衣,至信捨家無家學道,亦作是念:『我當作沙門行於梵行。』便作沙門行於梵行。婆私吒!如是,世中起此三種姓已,便知有第四沙門種也。 
  婆私吒!我今廣說此三種姓,云何廣有此三種耶?剎利種族族姓之子身行不善法,口、意行不善法,彼身壞命終一向受苦。如是,梵志種族、鞞舍種族族姓之子身行不善法,口、意行不善法,彼身壞命終一向受苦。婆私吒!剎利種族族姓之子身行善法,口、意行善法,彼身壞命終一向受樂。如是,梵志種族、鞞舍種族族姓之子身行善法,口、意行善法,彼身壞命終一向受樂。婆私吒!剎利種族族姓之子身行二行及與護行,口、意行二行及與護行,彼身壞命終受於苦樂。如是,梵志種族、鞞舍種族族姓之子身行二行及與護行,口、意行二行及與護行,彼身壞命終受於苦樂。 
  婆私吒!剎利種族族姓之子修七覺法,善思善觀,彼如是知、如是見,欲漏心解脫,有漏、無明漏心解脫,解脫已,便知解脫:『生已盡,梵行已立,所作已辦,不更受有,知如真。』如是,梵志種族、鞞舍種族族姓之子修七覺法,善思善觀,彼如是知、如是見,欲漏心解脫,有漏、無明漏心解脫,解脫已,便知解脫:『生已盡,梵行已立,所作已辦,不更受有,知如真。』婆私吒!如是,此三種廣分別也。梵天帝主說此偈曰: 
  『剎利二足尊,謂有種族姓,求學明及行,彼為天人稱。』 
  婆私吒!梵天帝主善說此偈,非不善也;善歌諷誦,非不善也;善詠語言,非不善也,謂如是說: 
  『剎利二足尊,謂有種族姓,求學明及行,彼為天人稱。』 
  所以者何?我亦如是說: 
  『剎利二足尊,謂有種族姓,求學明及行,彼為天人稱。』」 
  佛說如是,尊者婆私吒、婆羅婆等,及諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。 

巴利語經文 
DN.27/(4) Aggaññasuttaṃ 
Vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā 
   111. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati pubbārāme migāramātupāsāde. Tena kho pana samayena vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā bhikkhūsu parivasanti bhikkhubhāvaṃ ākaṅkhamānā. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamati. 
   112. Addasā kho vāseṭṭho bhagavantaṃ sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhitaṃ pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamantaṃ. Disvāna bhāradvājaṃ āmantesi– “ayaṃ, āvuso bhāradvāja, bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamati. Āyāmāvuso bhāradvāja, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamissāma; appeva nāma labheyyāma bhagavato santikā dhammiṃ kathaṃ savanāyā”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho bhāradvājo vāseṭṭhassa paccassosi. 
   113. Atha kho vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā bhagavantaṃ caṅkamantaṃ anucaṅkamiṃsu. Atha kho bhagavā vāseṭṭhaṃ āmantesi– “tumhe khvattha, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇajaccā brāhmaṇakulīnā brāhmaṇakulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā, kacci vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā na akkosanti na paribhāsantī”ti? “Taggha no, bhante, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti. “Yathā kathaṃ pana vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti? “Brāhmaṇā, bhante, evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā. Brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā. Brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā. Brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā. Te tumhe seṭṭhaṃ vaṇṇaṃ hitvā hīnamattha vaṇṇaṃ ajjhupagatā, yadidaṃ muṇḍake samaṇake ibbhe kaṇhe bandhupādāpacce. Tayidaṃ na sādhu, tayidaṃ nappatirūpaṃ, yaṃ tumhe seṭṭhaṃ vaṇṇaṃ hitvā hīnamattha vaṇṇaṃ ajjhupagatā yadidaṃ muṇḍake samaṇake ibbhe kaṇhe bandhupādāpacce’ti. Evaṃ kho no, bhante, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti. 
   114. “Taggha vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā porāṇaṃ assarantā evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Dissanti kho pana, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇānaṃ brāhmaṇiyo utuniyopi gabbhiniyopi vijāyamānāpi pāyamānāpi. Te ca brāhmaṇā yonijāva samānā evamāhaṃsu ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Te brahmānañceva abbhācikkhanti, musā ca bhāsanti, bahuñca apuññaṃ pasavanti. 
Catuvaṇṇasuddhi 
   115. “Cattārome, vāseṭṭha, vaṇṇā– khattiyā, brāhmaṇā, vessā, suddā. Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī kāmesumicchācārī musāvādī pisuṇavāco pharusavāco samphappalāpī abhijjhālu byāpannacitto micchādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā na-alamariyā na-alamariyasaṅkhātā kaṇhā kaṇhavipākā viññugarahitā, khattiyepi te idhekacce sandissanti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī kāmesumicchācārī musāvādī pisuṇavāco pharusavāco samphappalāpī abhijjhālu byāpannacitto micchādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā …pe… kaṇhā kaṇhavipākā viññugarahitā; suddepi te idhekacce sandissanti. 
   “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, adinnādānā paṭivirato, kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato, musāvādā paṭivirato, pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato, pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato, samphappalāpā paṭivirato, anabhijjhālu abyāpannacitto, sammādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā sukkā sukkavipākā viññuppasatthā, khattiyepi te idhekacce sandissanti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti …pe… anabhijjhālu abyāpannacitto, sammādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā sukkā sukkavipākā viññuppasatthā; suddepi te idhekacce sandissanti. 
   116. “Imesu kho, vāseṭṭha, catūsu vaṇṇesu evaṃ ubhayavokiṇṇesu vattamānesu kaṇhasukkesu dhammesu viññugarahitesu ceva viññuppasatthesu ca yadettha brāhmaṇā evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Taṃ tesaṃ viññū nānujānanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Imesañhi, vāseṭṭha, catunnaṃ vaṇṇānaṃ yo hoti bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññāvimutto, so nesaṃ aggamakkhāyati dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca 
   117. “Tadamināpetaṃ, vāseṭṭha, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā dhammova seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
   “Jānāti kho, vāseṭṭha, rājā pasenadi kosalo– ‘samaṇo gotamo anantarā sakyakulā pabbajito’ti. Sakyā kho pana, vāseṭṭha, rañño pasenadissa kosalassa anuyuttā bhavanti. Karonti kho, vāseṭṭha, sakyā raññe pasenadimhi kosale nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yaṃ karonti sakyā raññe pasenadimhi kosale nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ, karoti taṃ rājā pasenadi kosalo tathāgate nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ, na naṃ ‘sujāto samaṇo gotamo, dujjātohamasmi. Balavā samaṇo gotamo, dubbalohamasmi. Pāsādiko samaṇo gotamo, dubbaṇṇohamasmi. Mahesakkho samaṇo gotamo, appesakkhohamasmī’ti. Atha kho naṃ dhammaṃyeva sakkaronto dhammaṃ garuṃ karonto dhammaṃ mānento dhammaṃ pūjento dhammaṃ apacāyamāno evaṃ rājā pasenadi kosalo tathāgate nipaccakāraṃ karoti, abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ. Imināpi kho etaṃ, vāseṭṭha, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā dhammova seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
   118. “Tumhe khvattha, vāseṭṭha, nānājaccā nānānāmā nānāgottā nānākulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā. ‘Ke tumhe’ti– puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇā sakyaputtiyāmhā’ti– paṭijānātha. Yassa kho panassa, vāseṭṭha, tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā daḷhā asaṃhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, tassetaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘bhagavatomhi putto oraso mukhato jāto dhammajo dhammanimmito dhammadāyādo’ti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Tathāgatassa hetaṃ, vāseṭṭha, adhivacanaṃ ‘dhammakāyo’ itipi, ‘brahmakāyo’ itipi, ‘dhammabhūto’ itipi, ‘brahmabhūto’ itipi. 
   119. “Hoti kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṃ loko saṃvaṭṭati. Saṃvaṭṭamāne loke yebhuyyena sattā ābhassarasaṃvattanikā honti. Te tattha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ tiṭṭhanti. 
   “Hoti kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṃ loko vivaṭṭati. Vivaṭṭamāne loke yebhuyyena sattā ābhassarakāyā cavitvā itthattaṃ āgacchanti. Tedha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ tiṭṭhanti. 
Rasapathavipātubhāvo 
   120. “Ekodakībhūtaṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti andhakāro andhakāratimisā Na candimasūriyā paññāyanti, na nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni paññāyanti, na rattindivā paññāyanti, na māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyanti, na utusaṃvaccharā paññāyanti na itthipumā paññāyanti, sattā sattātveva saṅkhyaṃ gacchanti. Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena rasapathavī udakasmiṃ samatani; seyyathāpi nāma payaso tattassa nibbāyamānassa upari santānakaṃ hoti, evameva pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇā ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādā ahosi. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto lolajātiko– ‘ambho, kimevidaṃ bhavissatī’ti rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyi. Tassa rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyato acchādesi, taṇhā cassa okkami. Aññepi kho, vāseṭṭha, sattā tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamānā rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyiṃsu. Tesaṃ rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyataṃ acchādesi, taṇhā ca tesaṃ okkami. 
Candimasūriyādipātubhāvo 
   121. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Atha tesaṃ sattānaṃ sayaṃpabhā antaradhāyi. Sayaṃpabhāya antarahitāya candimasūriyā pāturahesuṃ. Candimasūriyesu pātubhūtesu nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni pāturahesuṃ. Nakkhattesu tārakarūpesu pātubhūtesu rattindivā paññāyiṃsu. Rattindivesu paññāyamānesu māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyiṃsu. Māsaḍḍhamāsesu paññāyamānesu utusaṃvaccharā paññāyiṃsu. Ettāvatā kho vāseṭṭha, ayaṃ loko puna vivaṭṭo hoti. 
   122. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ (rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantānaṃ) kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ rasapathavī antaradhāyi. Rasāya pathaviyā antarahitāya sannipatiṃsu. Sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘aho rasaṃ, aho rasan’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā kañcideva surasaṃ labhitvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘aho rasaṃ, aho rasan’ti! Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti. 
Bhūmipappaṭakapātubhāvo 
   123. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ rasāya pathaviyā antarahitāya bhūmipappaṭako pāturahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma ahicchattako, evameva pāturahosi. So ahosi vaṇṇasampanno gandhasampanno rasasampanno, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇo ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādo ahosi. 
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā bhūmipappaṭakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Te taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā bhūmipappaṭakaṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyoso mattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ bhūmipappaṭako antaradhāyi. 
Padālatāpātubhāvo 
   124. “Bhūmipappaṭake antarahite padālatā pāturahosi, seyyathāpi nāma kalambukā, evameva pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇā ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādā ahosi. 
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā padālataṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Te taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā padālataṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyosomattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ padālatā antaradhāyi. 
   “Padālatāya antarahitāya sannipatiṃsu. Sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘ahu vata no, ahāyi vata no padālatā’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā kenaci dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ahu vata no, ahāyi vata no’ti! Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti. 
Akaṭṭhapākasālipātubhāvo 
   125. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ padālatāya antarahitāya akaṭṭhapāko sāli pāturahosi akaṇo athuso suddho sugandho taṇḍulapphalo. Yaṃ taṃ sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya āharanti, pāto taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Yaṃ taṃ pāto pātarāsāya āharanti, sāyaṃ taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ; nāpadānaṃ paññāyati. Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. 
Itthipurisaliṅgapātubhāvo 
   126. “Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyosomattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha, itthiyā ca itthiliṅgaṃ pāturahosi purisassa ca purisaliṅgaṃ. Itthī ca purisaṃ ativelaṃ upanijjhāyati puriso ca itthiṃ. Tesaṃ ativelaṃ aññamaññaṃ upanijjhāyataṃ sārāgo udapādi, pariḷāho kāyasmiṃ okkami. Te pariḷāhapaccayā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseviṃsu. 
   “Ye kho pana te, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena sattā passanti methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevante, aññe paṃsuṃ khipanti, aññe seṭṭhiṃ khipanti aññe gomayaṃ khipanti– ‘nassa asuci, nassa asucī’ti. ‘Kathañhi nāma satto sattassa evarūpaṃ karissatī’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā ekaccesu janapadesu vadhuyā nibbuyhamānāya aññe paṃsuṃ khipanti, aññe seṭṭhiṃ khipanti, aññe gomayaṃ khipanti. Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti. 
Methunadhammasamācāro 
   127. “Adhammasammataṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti, tadetarahi dhammasammataṃ. Ye kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena sattā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevanti, te māsampi dvemāsampi na labhanti gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā pavisituṃ. Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā tasmiṃ asaddhamme ativelaṃ pātabyataṃ āpajjiṃsu. Atha agārāni upakkamiṃsu kātuṃ tasseva asaddhammassa paṭicchādanatthaṃ. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññatarassa sattassa alasajātikassa etadahosi– ‘ambho, kimevāhaṃ vihaññāmi sāliṃ āharanto sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya! Yaṃnūnāhaṃ sāliṃ āhareyyaṃ sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāyā’ti 
   “Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāya. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva dvīhāya. ‘Evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti. 
   “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakiṃdeva dvīhāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva catūhāya, ‘evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti. 
   “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakideva catūhāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakideva aṭṭhāhāya, ‘evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti. 
   “Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannidhikārakaṃ sāliṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Atha kaṇopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, thusopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi; lūnampi nappaṭivirūḷhaṃ apadānaṃ paññāyittha, saṇḍasaṇḍā sālayo aṭṭhaṃsu. 
Sālivibhāgo 
   128. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannipatiṃsu, sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘pāpakā vata, bho, dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā. Mayañhi pubbe manomayā ahumhā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino, ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no amhākaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena rasapathavī udakasmiṃ samatani. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā. Te mayaṃ rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ, tesaṃ no rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamataṃ paribhuñjituṃ sayaṃpabhā antaradhāyi. Sayaṃpabhāya antarahitāya candimasūriyā pāturahesuṃ, candimasūriyesu pātubhūtesu nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni pāturahesuṃ, nakkhattesu tārakarūpesu pātubhūtesu rattindivā paññāyiṃsu, rattindivesu paññāyamānesu māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyiṃsu. Māsaḍḍhamāsesu paññāyamānesu utusaṃvaccharā paññāyiṃsu. Te mayaṃ rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā rasapathavī antaradhāyi. Rasapathaviyā antarahitāya bhūmipappaṭako pāturahosi. So ahosi vaṇṇasampanno gandhasampanno rasasampanno. Te mayaṃ bhūmipappaṭakaṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ. Te mayaṃ taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā bhūmipappaṭako antaradhāyi. Bhūmipappaṭake antarahite padālatā pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā. Te mayaṃ padālataṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ. Te mayaṃ taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā padālatā antaradhāyi. Padālatāya antarahitāya akaṭṭhapāko sāli pāturahosi akaṇo athuso suddho sugandho taṇḍulapphalo. Yaṃ taṃ sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya āharāma, pāto taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Yaṃ taṃ pāto pātarāsāya āharāma, sāyaṃ taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Nāpadānaṃ paññāyittha. Te mayaṃ akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā kaṇopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, thusopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, lūnampi nappaṭivirūḷhaṃ, apadānaṃ paññāyittha, saṇḍasaṇḍā sālayo ṭhitā. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ sāliṃ vibhajeyyāma, mariyādaṃ ṭhapeyyāmā’ti! Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sāliṃ vibhajiṃsu, mariyādaṃ ṭhapesuṃ. 
   129. “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto lolajātiko sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñji. Tamenaṃ aggahesuṃ, gahetvā etadavocuṃ– ‘pāpakaṃ vata, bho satta, karosi, yatra hi nāma sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñjasi. Māssu, bho satta, punapi evarūpamakāsī’ti. ‘Evaṃ, bho’ti kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto tesaṃ sattānaṃ paccassosi. Dutiyampi kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto …pe… tatiyampi kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñji. Tamenaṃ aggahesuṃ, gahetvā etadavocuṃ– ‘pāpakaṃ vata, bho satta, karosi, yatra hi nāma sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñjasi. Māssu, bho satta, punapi evarūpamakāsī’ti. Aññe pāṇinā pahariṃsu, aññe leḍḍunā pahariṃsu, aññe daṇḍena pahariṃsu. Tadagge kho, vāseṭṭha, adinnādānaṃ paññāyati, garahā paññāyati, musāvādo paññāyati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyati. 
Mahāsammatarājā 
   130. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannipatiṃsu, sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘pāpakā vata bho dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā, yatra hi nāma adinnādānaṃ paññāyissati, garahā paññāyissati, musāvādo paññāyissati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyissati. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ ekaṃ sattaṃ sammanneyyāma, yo no sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīyeyya, sammā garahitabbaṃ garaheyya, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājeyya. Mayaṃ panassa sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadassāmā’ti. 
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā yo nesaṃ satto abhirūpataro ca dassanīyataro ca pāsādikataro ca mahesakkhataro ca taṃ sattaṃ upasaṅkamitvā etadavocuṃ– ‘ehi, bho satta, sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīya, sammā garahitabbaṃ garaha, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājehi. Mayaṃ pana te sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadassāmā’ti. ‘Evaṃ, bho’ti kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto tesaṃ sattānaṃ paṭissuṇitvā sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīyi, sammā garahitabbaṃ garahi, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājesi. Te panassa sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadaṃsu. 
   131. “Mahājanasammatoti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘mahāsammato, mahāsammato’ tveva paṭhamaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Khettānaṃ adhipatīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘khattiyo, khattiyo’ tveva dutiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Dhammena pare rañjetīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘rājā, rājā’ tveva tatiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa khattiyamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ, anaññesaṃ. Sadisānaṃyeva, no asadisānaṃ. Dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
Brāhmaṇamaṇḍalaṃ 
   132. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃyeva ekaccānaṃ etadahosi– ‘pāpakā vata, bho, dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā, yatra hi nāma adinnādānaṃ paññāyissati, garahā paññāyissati, musāvādo paññāyissati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyissati, pabbājanaṃ paññāyissati. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ pāpake akusale dhamme vāheyyāmā’ti. Te pāpake akusale dhamme vāhesuṃ Pāpake akusale dhamme vāhentīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘brāhmaṇā, brāhmaṇā’ tveva paṭhamaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Te araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭiyo karitvā paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti vītaṅgārā vītadhūmā pannamusalā sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya gāmanigamarājadhāniyo osaranti ghāsamesamānā. Te ghāsaṃ paṭilabhitvā punadeva araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti. Tamenaṃ manussā disvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ime kho, bho, sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭiyo karitvā paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti, vītaṅgārā vītadhūmā pannamusalā sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya gāmanigamarājadhāniyo osaranti ghāsamesamānā. Te ghāsaṃ paṭilabhitvā punadeva araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyantī’ti, jhāyantīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘jhāyakā, jhāyakā’ tveva dutiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Tesaṃyeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ekacce sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu taṃ jhānaṃ anabhisambhuṇamānā gāmasāmantaṃ nigamasāmantaṃ osaritvā ganthe karontā acchanti. Tamenaṃ manussā disvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ime kho, bho, sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu taṃ jhānaṃ anabhisambhuṇamānā gāmasāmantaṃ nigamasāmantaṃ osaritvā ganthe karontā acchanti, na dānime jhāyantī’ti. Na dānime jhāyantīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘ajjhāyakā ajjhāyakā’ tveva tatiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Hīnasammataṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti, tadetarahi seṭṭhasammataṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa brāhmaṇamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
Vessamaṇḍalaṃ 
   133. “Tesaṃyeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ekacce sattā methunaṃ dhammaṃ samādāya visukammante payojesuṃ. Methunaṃ dhammaṃ samādāya visukammante payojentīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘vessā, vessā’ tveva akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa vessamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaññeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
Suddamaṇḍalaṃ 
   134. “Tesaññeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ye te sattā avasesā te luddācārā khuddācārā ahesuṃ. Luddācārā khuddācārāti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘suddā, suddā’ tveva akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa suddamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ, sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
   135. “Ahu kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo, yaṃ khattiyopi sakaṃ dhammaṃ garahamāno agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati– ‘samaṇo bhavissāmī’ti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, sakaṃ dhammaṃ garahamāno agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati– ‘samaṇo bhavissāmī’ti. Imehi kho, vāseṭṭha, catūhi maṇḍalehi samaṇamaṇḍalassa abhinibbatti ahosi, tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ, sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
Duccaritādikathā 
   136. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena duccaritaṃ caritvā vācāya duccaritaṃ caritvā manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā micchādiṭṭhiko micchādiṭṭhikammasamādāno micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena duccaritaṃ caritvā vācāya duccaritaṃ caritvā manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā micchādiṭṭhiko micchādiṭṭhikammasamādāno micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. 
   “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena sucaritaṃ caritvā vācāya sucaritaṃ caritvā manasā sucaritaṃ caritvā sammādiṭṭhiko sammādiṭṭhikammasamādāno sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena sucaritaṃ caritvā vācāya sucaritaṃ caritvā manasā sucaritaṃ caritvā sammādiṭṭhiko sammādiṭṭhikammasamādāno sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. 
   137. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena dvayakārī, vācāya dvayakārī, manasā dvayakārī, vimissadiṭṭhiko vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādāno vimissadiṭṭhikamma-samādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī hoti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena dvayakārī vācāya dvayakārī, manasā dvayakārī, vimissadiṭṭhiko vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādāno vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī hoti. 
Bodhipakkhiyabhāvanā 
   138. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena saṃvuto vācāya saṃvuto manasā saṃvuto sattannaṃ bodhipakkhiyānaṃ dhammānaṃ bhāvanamanvāya diṭṭheva dhamme parinibbāyati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena saṃvuto vācāya saṃvuto manasā saṃvuto sattannaṃ bodhipakkhiyānaṃ dhammānaṃ bhāvanamanvāya diṭṭheva dhamme parinibbāyati. 
   139. “Imesañhi, vāseṭṭha, catunnaṃ vaṇṇānaṃ yo hoti bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññā vimutto so nesaṃ aggamakkhāyati dhammeneva. No adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca. 
   140. “Brahmunā pesā, vāseṭṭha, sanaṅkumārena gāthā bhāsitā– 
   ‘Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, ye gottapaṭisārino; 
   Vijjācaraṇasampanno, so seṭṭho devamānuse’ti. 
   “Sā kho panesā, vāseṭṭha, brahmunā sanaṅkumārena gāthā sugītā, no duggītā. Subhāsitā, no dubbhāsitā. Atthasaṃhitā, no anatthasaṃhitā. Anumatā mayā. Ahampi, vāseṭṭha, evaṃ vadāmi– 
   ‘Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, ye gottapaṭisārino; 
   Vijjācaraṇasampanno, so seṭṭho devamānuse’ti. 
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti. 
   Aggaññasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ catutthaṃ.