本經與巴利聖典《長部》第9經《Poṭṭhapādasuttaṃ》的內容完全相同。本經非常得深奧,因為它牽涉外道的形而上學,也涉及四禪八定的次第,故而在翻譯上,本人同時輔以莊春江居士的巴利中譯版及美國譚尼沙羅尊者的巴利英譯版,以務求貼近如來真實義。

    先從本經的背景場景說起,經中的布吒婆樓梵志林,其實就是佛教著名的女居士茉莉夫人躍身為皇后之前看守的茉莉花園。在這座花園裡,常有諸多外道沙門、梵志聚集在此修行。

    佛陀經中也提到,四禪八定的成就一如蓋大樓,先從地基建起,再一步一步往上建築。例如:當先滅除覆蔽心智的五蓋,除去貪欲、惡、不善法,有覺【尋】、有觀【伺】,離生喜、樂,入初禪,先滅除貪欲想,生喜、樂想【心境】。因此緣故,便知有因有緣而【初禪】想生,有因、有緣而【五蓋】想滅。其他的二、三、四禪及無色定,都以此類推。

    另外,經中出現的另一配角象首舍利弗在佛教裡也相當的有名,他與舍利弗尊者一點關係都沒有。在巴利經典中他的名字是質多羅,但也與佛教中智慧第一的在家居士質多羅非同一人。

    象首後來出家,在巴利經典中的名字叫質多(Citta)比丘,他原是一名馴象師的兒子。在他很年輕的時候曾遇見過一位正托缽乞食回來的老比丘,比丘的缽中有一道非常美味的食物,但老比丘對它並無貪欲,便將它給了他。

    象首得到食物以後非常的高興,便加入了僧團,他以為成為比丘之後,每天就可以不用工作,自會有人供養美食。然而,如果是出於這樣的動機出家,根本就不可能過梵行的生活,所以不久之後他便脫下了僧袍還俗。

    但聖僧團(sangha)清淨梵行的精神在他心中留下深刻且難以抹滅的印象,他很快地對在家的生活感到不滿,並要求再次出家。但他出家之後,過了一段時間又再度還俗。這種情況連續發生了三、四、五次,就在第五次之後他結了婚。

    婚後的某晚,他輾轉難眠,望著躺在床上正熟睡的懷孕的妻子,對欲樂的厭離在心中強烈地生起,於是他立即抓起黃色僧袍跑向寺院。在寂靜夜晚的路上,先前出家所種下的所有善根頓時在心中一一成熟展現,他當下便證得了初果。

    然而寺院媢L去的同修比丘們達成共識,他們一致拒絕質多第六次的出家。因為他們覺得已對他夠容忍,並認為他是僧團的恥辱,完全不適合梵行。比丘戒律中有關男性可以還俗六次的規定就是因他而設的規定。

    象首第七次要求出家時,本來僧團是不打算同意,但卻看見象首的臉上容光煥發,帶著一種嶄新的喜悅,舉止平靜祥和,這使他們無法拒絕他再度出家的請求。而這一次,他很快就達到四種禪定與無相三摩地(samadhi)

    這樣的禪定成就使他充滿了喜悅,他很想將自己的成就對別人說。象首比丘有一次參加長老們的聚會,在場的象首一再打斷他們的談話。與會的某位長老,也就是受到佛所稱譽為四無礙辯第一的比丘摩訶拘絺羅(Mahakotthita)尊者,指摘他應該要重視倫理與禮節,應等到其他的長老們都說完後再發言。然而象首的朋友們卻認為他很有智慧,且能從自己的經驗解釋佛法,所以不應受到責備。

    摩訶拘絺羅尊者解釋說他可以看見象首的心,並說明為什麼他會指摘象首比丘的理由,他說有些心的狀態只要持續,可能還可以,但無法避免令比丘再次還俗,他以下面的幾個譬喻來說明這點,例如:一隻被拴在牛棚看似溫馴平靜的牛,一旦鬆脫脖子上的繩索,就會立刻四處狂衝並踐踏農作物。同樣的道理,一個比丘在大師或聖僧面前,可能會表現得很謙和有禮,但離開之後獨自一人時,很容易就故態復萌並還俗。

    再者,人可能進入四種禪定與無相三摩地(samadhi,定),只要禪定能持續下去就很安全穩定,但若禪悅一消失,走入人群時,由於多嘴與不自制,驕傲地誇示自己的成就,心會變得充滿貪欲(蓋),並放棄出家修行。他在禪定中可能覺得安全,但也正因如此而導致他退步放逸。就好比當國王與軍隊伴隨著鼓聲與馬車駐紮林中時,沒有人會聽到蟋蟀的叫聲,每個人都以為它們很安靜無聲。可但當軍隊離開後,蟋蟀聲就能再次輕易地被聽到,即使先前大家都相當確定那堥繭L蟋蟀。

    從這裡我們也可以瞭解為什麼提婆達多後來失去神通的原因。因為,他想要取代佛陀,這是極不正常的貪欲蓋;他想要滅佛,這是極不正常的瞋恚蓋。光這兩大障礙,便使他神通的基礎四禪八定都壞失,沒有了支持神通的基礎,神通當然也跟著消失。

    本經就是敘述象首在還沒有成為佛教徒以前,某日與他的好友、也就是本經的主角外道遊方行者布吒波陀(Potthapada)一起去頂禮佛陀,布吒波陀提出一些關於三界中不同存有的深奧問題。而象首則緊接著進一步問三界的存有可否同時存於一身?他在第七次出家後便在很短的時間內成為了阿羅漢。

    在南傳巴利《長部》經典中記載了象首比丘之所以六次出家六次還俗的業力因緣,是因為在很久很久以前的迦葉佛時代,曾有兩個年輕人加入僧團,當時其中一名比丘受不了辛苦的梵行生活,他想還俗;而另一名比丘則鼓勵他還俗,以滿足自己的優越感,而這個勸人還俗的壞心眼比丘就是象首比丘的前世。象首比丘因為這個醜陋的動機與惡業,使他在很久以後的今生喬達摩佛的時代成熟,令他遭受到六次出家與六次還俗的惡果,其間同時飽受他人的羞辱與譏嫌。

選譯自《長阿含經》第28

喬正一白話譯於西元2016/10/15農曆915日之八關齋戒日 

    我是這樣聽聞的: 

    曾經,佛陀與一千二百五十位大比丘眾一起暫時住在古印度的舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園林裡。 

    有一次,世尊在清晨著衣持鉢,走入舍衛城內乞食。 

    當時,世尊心想:「今天乞食的時間尚早,不如先去外道沙門聚集修行的茉莉花園林中看一看,等時候到了再去乞食。」 

    於是,世尊走到了梵志修行的茉莉花園林中。 

    一位名叫布吒婆樓的外道沙門看見佛陀走來,即起身迎接,並說道:「歡迎!沙門瞿曇!您好久沒來這裡了,今日怎麼有空大駕光臨?請上前就座。」 

    世尊即席入座,問布吒婆樓:「你們在此集會,是在討論什麼呢?講些什麼?」 

    梵志對佛說:「昨天有很多的梵志、沙門、婆羅門都在此婆羅門講堂集會,我們都在談論一些沒有意義且自相矛盾的畜生論。他們討論的內容大致如下:

    有的梵志認為:『人的感知、觀念、思想等精神心理活動(統稱:「想」)都是無因、無緣而生,也無因、無緣而滅;想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅。』

    有的梵志則認為:『因為有【我】,所以想因【我】而生;也因【我】而想滅;彼想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅。』

    或有梵志作主張:『你們這些看法都不對。是有一個大鬼神,祂有大神通威力,就是祂在主宰控制人類的【想】,是祂控制人類的想去,也控制人的想來;如果祂控制想去則想滅,若祂控制想來則想生。』

    因此,我心想,沙門瞿曇一定知道箇中奧秘,一定能知什麼是【想知滅定】。」 

    這時,世尊對梵志說:「這些人的主張都是錯的。梵志!正確的說法與見解應該是:有因、有緣而想生,有因、有緣而想滅。 

    如來出現於世間,至真、等正覺、……十號具足,若有人於佛法中出家修道,……乃至滅除覆蔽心智的五蓋,除去貪欲、惡、不善法,有覺【尋】、有觀【伺】,離生喜、樂,入初禪,先滅除貪欲想,生喜、樂想【心境】。梵志!因此緣故,便知此人有因有緣而【初禪】想生,有因、有緣而【五蓋】想滅。

    當滅除了有覺【尋】、觀【伺】,只留存內心的喜、一心【一境】,進入無覺、無觀,定生喜、樂,入第二禪;梵志!此人的初禪想【心境、定境】便消滅,緊接著二禪想便產生;因此,便可知有因、有緣而【初禪】想滅,有因、有緣而【二禪】想生。

    當捨去喜心而修平等,專念一心【一境】,自知身樂,乃賢聖所求,護念清淨,便入第三禪;梵志!當知此人的二禪想滅,三禪想生;因此,便知有因、有緣而二禪想滅,有因、有緣三禪想生。

    當同時捨去苦與樂的心態,先滅憂喜,護【平等】念清淨,便入第四禪;梵志!當知此人三禪想滅,四禪想生;因此,便知有因、有緣【三禪】想滅,有因、有緣【四禪】想生。

    當捨離對一切色界的貪著想,滅除瞋恚,不念任何其他不同的想【心境】,而入空處;梵志!當一切色界的想滅,無色界的空處想便生;因此,便知有因、有緣【色界】想滅,有因、有緣【無色空處】想生。

    當超越一切空處,入識遍遍處;梵志!當知此人空處想滅,識遍處想生;故知有因、有緣【空處】想滅,有因、有緣【識遍處】想生。

    當超越一切識處,進入不用處;梵志!當知此人識遍處想滅,不用處想生;因此,便知有因、有緣識遍處想滅,有因、有緣不用處想生。

    當捨離不用處,進入有想、無想處【非想、非非想定】;梵志!當知此人不用處想滅,有想、無想處想生;因此,便知有因、有緣不用處想滅,有因、有緣有想、無想處想生。

    最後,當此人捨離有想、無想處,進入想知滅定【滅盡定】;梵志!當知此人有想、無想處想滅,進入想知滅定;因此,便知有因、有緣【滅盡定】想生,有因、有緣【非想、非非想定】想滅。

    當此人已證得【滅盡定】此想時,他會思惟:『只要有念就是惡、是不好的,唯有無念是善、是好的。』當他如是思惟時,此人的細微妙想不滅,那麼以後更粗的想就會生起。

    於是,此人又思惟:『我應該不起念行,不起思惟。』因為此人不為念行,不起思惟,結果此人的細微妙想滅,粗想也不生。這個時候,他即進入想知滅定【滅盡定】。怎麼樣?梵志!你以前可曾聽聞過如此有條理、有進階的滅想因緣嗎?」 

    梵志對佛說:「沒有!從來沒有聽過。」 他又對佛說:「現在我已明白入想知滅定【滅盡定】的原理了。」 

    佛陀說:「善哉!善哉!這就是賢聖法中有條理、按部就班的滅想定【滅盡定】。」 

    梵志又問佛陀:「在諸想中,何者是想的頂點?」 

    佛陀說:「不用處想。」 

    梵志又問:「那麼在諸想中,何者是想的最高頂點?」 

    佛陀說:「在一切的有想、無想中,若能按部就班證得【想知滅定】,就是想的最高頂點。」 

    梵志又問:「請問是只有一個想的頂點,還是有多個想的頂點?」

    佛陀說:「只有一個想的頂點,並無多個想的頂點。」【 譯按:在巴利《長部》經典中這一段的內容與本經有齟齬,巴利《長部》記載:佛陀說:「有一個想的頂點,也有多個想的頂點。只要某人抵達了想蘊的停止,所我才說有一個想的頂點,也有多個想的頂點。」

    梵志又問:「請問是先有想生,然後才有智生?還是先有智生,然後想才生?又或者是想與智同時產生呢?」

    佛陀說:「是先有想生,然後有智,由想而有智。」 

    梵志又問:「請問,想即是我嗎?」 

    佛陀問:「你所謂的『我』指的是什麼?」 

    梵志說:「我說的『我』就是指色身的四大、六入,父母生育,乳餔成長,衣服莊嚴,無常、磨滅的現象,這個人體就是我。」 

    佛告梵志:「哦?如果你所謂的『我』指的是人的身體,那麼,梵志!這樣就會有矛盾,你所的『我』與『想』是不同的東西,因為人的想會生、會滅。」 

    梵志又說:「好!那我不說人的身體是我,我說欲界天是我。」 

    佛陀說:「如果是這樣,那還是一樣矛盾,你所的『我』與『想』是不同的東西,因為人的想會生、會滅。」 

    梵志說:「那我說色界天是我。」 

    佛陀說:「還是一樣矛盾。」 

    梵志說:「那我說空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處、無色天是我。」 

    佛陀說:「一樣矛盾。」 

    梵志說:「瞿曇!我該如何才能搞清楚想的人是我、或想與我是不同的東西?」 

    佛陀說:「甚難!甚難!因為你的見解跟我們不一樣、修行的方法也不同、信仰不同、喜好不同、師承不同。」 

    梵志說:「的確!根據我們的信仰與教義,不外乎以下的理論:我、世間是恆常,其他都是假的;或我、世間無常,其他都是假的;或我、世間有常無常,其他都是假的;或我、世間非有常非無常,其他都是假的;或我、世間有邊,其他都是假的;我、世間無邊,其他都是假的;我、世間有邊無邊,其他都是假的;我、世間非有邊非無邊,其他都是假的。」 

    佛陀說:「你所講的這些理論,世間有常,……,我都不認同。」 

    梵志問佛:「哦?為什麼?」 

    佛陀說:「因為這些都與義不合,與法不合,非梵行,非無欲,非無為,非寂滅,非止息,非正覺,非沙門,非泥洹【解脫涅槃】。因此,我不認同。」

    梵志又問:「請問什麼才是與義合、與法合?什麼是梵行?什麼是無為?什麼是無欲?什麼是寂滅?什麼是止息?什麼是正覺?什麼是沙門?什麼是泥洹?什麼才是您所認同的教義?」 

    佛陀說:「我只認同苦諦、苦集、苦滅、苦出要諦。只有四聖諦才是與義合、與法合,梵行初首、無欲、無為、寂滅、止息、正覺、沙門、泥洹。因此,我只認同四聖諦。」 

    這時,世尊為梵志說法,依照:示、教、利、喜的次第為他開示,然後佛陀便從座位起身離去。 

    就在佛陀離去不久,其他的梵志以犀利尖銳的語氣責問布吒婆樓梵志:「為什麼你聽瞿曇沙門所說的法,每一句話都認可?我們才不認同沙門瞿曇所說的一切!」 

    布吒婆樓對諸梵志解釋:「沙門瞿曇說:『我、世間有常,乃至如來非終非不終,不與義合,故我不認同。』等語,我其實並不是很瞭解他說的話。但沙門瞿曇依【四聖諦】法、住【四聖諦】法,以【四聖諦】法而言,以【四聖諦】法出離,教我如何能駁斥違背這樣的真理?沙門瞿曇說的【四聖諦】如此微妙,我實在找不出可以駁斥反對的理由。」 

    後來,又經過了幾天,布吒婆樓梵志與他的好友象首舍利弗【質多羅】一起去參訪世尊。因為梵志不是佛弟子,所以只是禮貌性地跟世尊問候,便坐在一旁;只有象首舍利弗雖然也還不是佛教徒,但他對佛教很有興趣,所以他對佛陀頂禮,然後才起身坐在一旁。

    梵志把佛陀之前離去後其他梵志責備他以及他如何辯解的經過,都跟佛陀說了一遍。  

    佛陀說:「這些梵志這麼責備你實在很不應該,這些人都很盲目,唯獨你才是清醒的。我所說的法,有確定與不確定。

    什麼是不確定的部分?比如說:我、世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,這些都是不確定的。因為,這些東西都與義不合,與法不合,非梵行初,非無欲,非無為,非寂滅,非止息,非正覺,非沙門,非泥洹。因此,梵志!我才會說它們是不確定的。

    什麼是確定、明確的部分?例如:苦諦、苦集、苦滅、苦出要諦。因為,這些都是與法合、與義合、是梵行初首、無欲、無為、寂滅、止息、正覺、沙門、泥洹。因此,它們都是肯定、明確、確定的部分。 

    梵志!有一些沙門、婆羅門會這麼說:『當我死後,一直都是至福快樂。』

    我問他們:『你們真的都已體驗、看見過了嗎?』

    他們回答我說:『沒有!我們都沒體驗過,也沒親眼見過。』

    我又問他們:『你們有遇過有人死後,往生到了諸天,然後回來顯靈告訴你們他們很幸福快樂嗎?』

    『沒有。』

    我又問:『那些往生到極樂諸天的人,可曾跟你們坐在一起勉勵你們要精進修定嗎?』

    『沒有。』

    我又問:『這些天神可曾來勉勵你們:「你們所行端正質直,將來一定會轉生到極樂天界;因為我就是在生前所行端正質直,故而死後得以轉生到天界受樂。」嗎?』

    『沒有。』

    我又問:『你們能否以意念於己身起心變化作另一個四大的身體,而且諸根具足無闕?』

    『不能。』

    怎樣?梵志!你認為這些沙門、婆羅門所言為是誠實可靠?還是很難讓人信服?」 

    梵志對佛陀說:「很難讓人信服。」 

    佛陀說:「沒錯!就好比有人說:『我跟某個美麗的女人在交往。』並一直稱讚這個女子。其他人好奇地問:『你認識這個女的嗎?她住在何處?東方、西方、南方、北方?』此人卻說:『我都不知道。』再問他:『你知道她的地址嗎?』答說:『不知。』又問他:『你認識此女的父母及其姓名嗎?』答說:『都不知。』再問:『你知此女為剎利女,是婆羅門、居士、首陀羅女嗎?』答說:『都不知。』又問:『你知此女的身高長短、皮膚粗細黑白、美醜嗎?』答說:『都不知。』

    怎樣?梵志!你覺得這個人所說的話能信嗎?」 

    「不能。」 

    「梵志!這個沙門、婆羅門也是一樣,他的話根本不能信。

    梵志!就好比有人在一處空地上架立一個梯子,有人問他:『你架立梯子要幹什麼?』他說:『我要上堂。』又問他:『堂在哪裡?』答說:『不知道。』

    怎麼樣?梵志!此人架立梯子豈非沒有意義?」 

    「沒錯,真的沒有意義。」 

    佛陀對布吒婆樓說:「你說我們的身體四大、六入,父母生育,乳餔成長,衣服莊嚴,無常、磨滅,你以此為我;但我說這是染汙,應該要清淨,要解脫;你可能會認為染汙法不可消滅,清淨法也不可生,常在苦中,但請不要這麼想,為什麼呢?因為染汙法真的可滅盡,清淨法也確實可出生,人真的可以處於安樂之地,歡喜愛樂,專念一心,智慧增廣。

    梵志!我也認為欲界天、色界天、空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處等無色界天,我說它們也都是染汙,應捨離,應清淨,應解脫。你可能會認為染汙法不可消滅,清淨法也不可生,常在苦中,但請不要這麼想,為什麼呢?因為染汙法真的可滅盡,清淨法也確實可出生,人真的可以處於安樂之地,歡喜愛樂,專念一心,智慧增廣。」 

    這時,在一旁的象首舍利弗【質多羅】問佛陀:「世尊!請問,當有欲界人身四大諸根時,有可能可以同時擁有欲界天身、色界天身,空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處天身?

    世尊!當有欲界天身時,有可能可以同時擁有欲界人身四大諸根,及色界天身,空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處天身嗎?

    世尊!當有色界天身時,有可能同時擁有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身,空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處天身嗎?

    同樣有想無想處天身時,可以同時擁有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身,色界天身,空處、識處、無所有處天身嗎?」 

    佛陀告訴象首舍利弗:「都不可能!因為這些都是不同的存在,彼此不能共存。象首!就好比牛乳,從乳變為酪,酪變為生酥,生酥變為熟酥,熟酥變為醍醐,醍醐已經是造家的提煉了。

    象首!當有乳時,它就只叫做乳,不可能同時叫做酪、酥、醍醐;同理,當它逐漸變質成醍醐時,就只能叫做醍醐,不可能又叫它乳、酪、酥。

    象首!同樣的道理,若有欲界人身四大諸根時,不可能同有擁有欲界天身、色界天身、……乃至有想無想處天身;同理,當此人逐漸修到了有想無想處天身時,他只能有想無想處天身,不可能又同時有欲界的人身四大諸根,及欲界天身、色界天身、……乃至無所有天身。 

    象首!假設有人來問你:『有可能過去的身體、未來、現在的身體都在同一時間存在嗎?』假設有人來問你這個問題,你會怎麼回答?」

    象首說:「假設有人這麼問我,我會這麼回答:『有過去的身體時,他就只是過去的身體,並沒有未來、現在;有未來的身體時,就只是未來身,並無過去、現在;假設有現在身時,就只是現在身,並無過去、未來身。』」

    「象首!同樣的道理,有欲界人身四大諸根時,不可能同時存在欲界天身,色界天身,……乃至有想無想處天身;同理,當此人逐漸修到了有想無想處天身時,也不可能同時存在欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身、色界天身、……至不用處天身。 

    還有,象首!假設有人來問你:『你曾有的過去是否已滅去?未來是否將來到?現在是否為當下?』你會怎麼回答?」 

    象首回答:「我會這樣回答:『我曾有的過去已滅,但不能說不存在;未來也一定會來到,不可能不存在;現在就是當下,也存在。』」 

    佛陀說:「象首!同樣的道理,有欲界人身四大諸根時,就不可能同時存在欲界天身,……乃至有想無想天身;同理,當展轉修到了有想無想天身時,也不可能同時存在欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身,……乃至無所有處天身。」 

    這時,象首對佛陀說:「世尊!我要歸依佛,歸依法,歸依僧,請允許我於正法中為一名在家居士,自今而後,終生奉持不殺、不盜、不邪淫、不妄語、不飲酒等五戒。」 

    而布吒婆樓梵志則對佛說:「請問我是否能於佛法中出家受戒?」 

    佛陀對梵志說:「若有外道想要於我法中出家修道者,應當先受四個月的觀察期,當僧眾都滿意且認可,之後才可以出家受戒。但,雖有這樣的規定,也是因人而異。」 

    梵志對佛陀說:「沒關係,我願意接受觀察。」 

    佛陀對梵志說:「就像我剛說的,雖有這樣的規定,但還是看人而可以做調整。」 

    於是,彼梵志便於正法中出家受戒。沒多久,他因為信心堅固,淨修梵行,便於今生中自身作證:此生已是歷劫生死的最後一站,我該修的功課都已完成,我已成就最高的梵行,不會再有下一生,他成了一名阿羅漢。 

    布吒婆樓聽聞佛陀所說的法,心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

原文/

如是我聞: 
  一時,佛在舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園,與大比丘眾千二百五十人俱。 
  爾時,世尊清旦著衣持鉢,入舍衛城乞食。 
  時,世尊念言: 
  「今日乞食,於時為早,今我寧可往至布吒婆樓梵志林中觀看,須時至,當乞食。」 
  爾時,世尊即詣梵志林中。 
  時,布吒婆樓梵志遙見佛來,即起迎言: 
  「善來!沙門瞿曇!久不來此,今以何緣而能屈顧?可前就座。」 
  爾時,世尊即就其座,告布吒婆樓曰: 
  「汝等集此,何所作為?為何講說?」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「世尊!昨日多有梵志、沙門、婆羅門集此婆羅門堂,說如是事,相違逆論。瞿曇!或有梵志作是說言:『人無因無緣而想生,無因無緣而想滅,想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅。』瞿曇!或有梵志作是說:『由命有想生,由命有想滅,彼想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅。』瞿曇!或有梵志作是說:『如先所言,無有是處。有大鬼神,有大威力,彼持想去,彼持想來,彼持想去則想滅,彼持想來則想生。』我因是故,生念,念沙門瞿曇{}[]知此義,必能善知想知滅定。」 
  爾時,世尊告梵志曰: 
  「彼諸論者皆有過咎:言無因無緣而有想生,無因無緣而有想滅,想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅;或言因命想生,因命想滅,想有去來,來則想生,去則想滅;或有言:『無有是處,有大鬼神,彼持想來,彼持想去,持來則想生,持去則想滅。』如此言者,皆有過咎,所以者何?梵志!有因緣而想生,有因緣而想滅。 
  若如來出現於世,至真、等正覺、……十號具足,有人於佛法中出家為道,……乃至滅五蓋覆蔽心者,除去欲、惡不善法,有覺、有觀,離生喜、樂,入初禪,先滅欲想,生喜、樂想,梵志!以此故知有因緣想生,有因緣想滅。滅有覺、觀,內喜、一心,無覺、無觀,定生喜、樂,入第二禪,梵志!彼初禪想滅,二禪想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。捨喜修護,專念一心,自知身樂,賢聖所求,護念清淨,入[]三禪,梵志!彼二禪想滅,三禪想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。捨苦捨樂,先滅憂喜,護念清淨,入第四禪,梵志!彼三禪想滅,四禪想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。捨一切色想,滅恚,不念異想,入空處,梵志!一切色想滅,空處想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。越一切空處,入識處,梵志!彼空處想滅,識處想生,故知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。越一切識處,入不用處,梵志!彼識處想滅,不用處想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。捨不用處,入有想無想處,梵志!彼不用處想滅,有想無想處想生,以是故,知有因緣想滅,有因緣想生。彼捨有想無想處,入想知滅定,梵志!彼有想無想處想滅,入想知滅定,以是故,知有因緣想生,有因緣想滅。彼得此想已,作是念:『有念為惡,無念為善。』彼作是念時,彼微妙想不滅,更麤想生。彼復念言:『我今寧可不為念行,不起思惟。』彼不為念行,不起思惟已,微妙想滅,麤想不生。彼不為念行,不起思惟,微妙想滅,麤想不生時,即入想知滅定。云何?梵志!汝從本已來,頗曾聞此次第滅想因緣不?」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「從本已來,信自不聞如是次第滅想因緣。」 
  又白佛言: 
  「我今生念,謂:此有想、此無想,或復有想此想已,彼作是念:『有念為惡,無念為善。』彼作是念時,微妙想不滅,麤想更生,彼復念言:『我今寧可不為念行,不起思惟。』彼不為念行,不起思惟已,微妙想滅,麤想不生。彼不為念行,不起思惟,微妙想滅,麤想不生時,即入想知滅定。」 
  佛告梵志言: 
  「善哉!善哉!此是賢聖法中次第想滅{}定。」 
  梵志復白佛言: 
  「此諸想中,何者為無上想?」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「不用處想為無上。」 
  梵志又白佛言: 
  「諸想中,何者為第一無上想?」 
  佛言: 
  「諸[言有]想、諸言無想,於其中間能次第得想知滅定者,是為第一無上想。」 
  梵志又問:「為一想,為多想?」 
  佛言:「有一想,無多想。」 
  梵志又問: 
  「先有想生然後智?先有智生然後想?為想、智一時俱生耶?」 
  佛言:「先有想生然後智,由想有智。」 
  梵志又問:「想即是我耶?」 
  佛告梵志:「汝說何等人是我?」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「我不說人是我,我自說色身四大、六入,父母生育,乳餔成長,衣服莊嚴,無常、磨滅法,我說此人是我。」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「汝言色身四大、六入,父母生育,乳餔長成,衣服莊嚴,無常、磨滅法,說此人是我,梵志!且置此我,但人想生、人想滅。」 
  梵志言: 
  「我不說人是我,我說欲界天是我。」 
  佛言: 
  「且置欲界天是我,但人想生、人想滅。」 
  梵志言: 
  「我不說人是我,我自說色界天是我。」 
  佛言: 
  「且置色界天是我,但人想生、人想滅。」 
  梵志言: 
  「我不說人是我,我自說空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處、無色天是我。」 
  佛言: 
  「且置空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處、無色天是我,但人想生、人想滅。」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「云何?瞿曇!我寧可得知人想生、人想滅不?」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「汝欲知人想生、人想滅者,甚難!甚難!所以者何?汝異見、異習、異忍、異受,依異法故。」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「如是,瞿曇!我異見、異習、異忍、異受,依異法故,欲知人想生、人想滅者,甚難!甚難!所以者何?我、世間有常,此實餘虛,我、世間無常,此實餘虛,我、世間有常無常,此實餘虛,我、世間非有常非無常,此實餘虛,我、世間有邊,此實餘虛,我、世間無邊,此實餘虛,我、世間有邊無邊,此實餘虛,我、世間非有邊非無邊,此實餘虛,是命是身,此實餘虛,命異身異,此實餘虛,身命非異非不異,此實餘虛,無命無身,此實餘虛。如來終,此實餘虛,如來不終,此實餘虛,如來終不終,此實餘虛,如來非終非不終,此實餘虛。」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,我所不記。」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「瞿曇!何故不記,我、世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,盡不記耶?」 
  佛言: 
  「此不與義合,不與法合,非梵行,非無欲,非無為,非寂滅,非止息,非正覺,非沙門,非泥洹,是故,不記。」 
  梵志又問: 
  「云何為義合、法合?云何為梵行初?云何無為?云何無欲?云何寂滅?云何止息?云何正覺?云何沙門?云何泥洹?云何名記?」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「我記苦諦、苦集、苦滅、苦出要諦,所以者何?此是義合、法合,梵行初首、無欲、無為、寂滅、止息、正覺、沙門、泥洹,是故,我記。」 
  爾時,世尊為梵志說法,示、教、利、喜已,即從{}[]起而去。 
  佛去未久,其後,諸餘梵志語布吒婆樓梵志曰: 
  「汝何故聽瞿曇沙門所說,語語印可?瞿曇言:『我及世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,不與義合,故我不記。』汝何故印可是言?我等不可沙門瞿曇如是所說。」 
  布吒婆樓報諸梵志言: 
  「沙門瞿曇所說:『我、世間有常,乃至如來非終非不終,不與義合,故我不記。』我亦不印可此言,但彼沙門瞿曇依法、住[],以法而言,以法出離,我當何由違此智言?沙門瞿曇如此微妙法言,不可違也。」 
  時,布吒婆樓梵志又於異時,共象首舍利弗詣世尊所,問訊已,一面坐。象首舍利弗禮佛而坐,梵志白佛言: 
  「佛先在我所,時,去未久,其後諸餘梵志語我言:『汝何故聽沙門瞿曇所說,語語印可?瞿曇言:「我、世間常,……乃至如來非終非不終,不合義,故不記。」汝何故印可是言?我等不可沙門瞿曇如是所說。』我報彼言:『沙門瞿曇所說:「我、世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,不與義合,故我不記。」我亦不印可此言。但彼沙門瞿曇依法住法,以法而言,以法出離,我等何由違此智言?沙門瞿曇微妙法言,不可違也。』」 
  佛告梵志曰: 
  「諸梵志言:『汝何故聽沙門瞿曇所說,語語印可?』此言有咎,所以者何?我所說法,有決定記、不決定記。云何名不決定記?我、世間有常,……乃至如來非終非不終,我亦說此言而不決定記,所以然者?此不與義合,不與法合,非梵行初,非無欲,非無為,非寂滅,非止息,非正覺,非沙門,非泥洹,是故,梵志!我雖說此言而不決定記。云何名為決定記?我記苦諦、苦集、苦滅、苦出要諦,所以者何?此與法合、義合,是梵行初首{無定無記梵志或有沙門婆羅門於一處世間},無欲,無為,寂滅,止息,正覺,沙門,泥洹,是故,我說決定記。 
  梵志!或有沙門、婆羅門於一處世間一向說樂,我語彼言:『汝等審說一處世間一向樂耶?』彼報我言:『如是。』我又{}[?]彼言:『汝知、見一處世間一向樂耶?』彼答我言:『不知、不見。』我復語彼言:『一處世間諸天一向樂,汝曾見不?』彼報我言:『不知、不見。』又問彼言:『彼一處世間諸天,汝頗共坐起言語,精進修定不耶?』答我言:『不。』我又問彼言:『彼一處世間諸天一向樂者,頗曾來語汝言:「汝所行質直,當生彼一向樂天,我以所行質直,故得生彼共受樂。」耶?』彼答我言:『不也。』我又問彼言:『汝能於己身起心化作他四大身,身體具足,諸根無闕不?』彼答我言:『不能。』云何?梵志!彼沙門、婆羅門所言為是誠實,為應法不?」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「此非誠實,為非法言。」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「如有人言:『我與彼端正女人交通。』稱讚婬女。餘人問言:『汝識彼女不?為在何處?東方、西方、南方、北方耶?』答曰:『不知。』又問:『汝知彼女所止土地、城邑、村落不?』答曰:『不知。』又問:『汝識彼女父母及其姓字不?』答曰:『不知。』又問:『汝知彼女為剎利女,為是婆羅門、居士、首陀羅女耶?』答曰:『不知。』又問:『汝知彼女為長短、麤細、黑白、好醜耶?』答曰:『不知。』云何?梵志!此人所說為誠實不?」 
  答曰:「不也。」 
  「梵志!彼沙門、婆羅門亦復如是,無有真實。梵志!猶如有人立梯空地,餘人問言:『立梯用為?』答曰:『我欲上堂。』又問:『堂何所在?』答曰:『不知。』云何?梵志!彼立梯者豈非虛妄耶?」 
  答曰:「如是,彼實虛妄。」 
  佛言: 
  「諸沙門、婆羅門亦復如是,虛妄無實。」 
  佛告布吒婆樓: 
  「汝言我身色四大、六入,父母生育,乳餔成長,衣服莊嚴,無常、磨滅,以此為我者,我說此為染汙,為清淨,為得解,汝意或謂染汙法不可滅,清淨法不可生,常在苦中,勿作是念,何以故?染汙法可滅盡,清淨法可出生,處安樂地,歡喜愛樂,專念一心,智慧增廣。梵志!我於欲界天[、色界天]、空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處天,說為染汙,亦說清淨,亦說得解,汝意或謂染汙法不可滅,清淨法不可生,常在苦中,勿作是念,所以者何?染汙可滅,淨法可生,處安樂地,歡喜愛樂,專念一心,智慧增廣。」 
  爾時,象首舍利弗白[]言: 
  「世尊!當有欲界人身四大諸根時,復有欲界天身、色界天身,空處、識處、不用處、有想無想處天身一時有不?世尊!當有欲界天身時,復有欲界人身四大諸根,及色界天身,空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處天身一時有不?世尊!當有色界天身時,復有欲界人身四大諸根,及{}[?]界天身,空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處天身一時有不?如是至有想無想處天身時,有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身,色界天身,空處、識處、無所有處天身一時有不?」 
  佛告象首舍利弗: 
  「若有欲界人身四大諸根,爾時,正有欲界人身四大諸根,非欲界天身、色界天身、空處、識處、無所有處、有想無想處天身,如是,……乃至有有想無想處天身時,爾時,正有[]想無想處天身,無有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身、色界天身、空處、識處、無所有處天身。象首!譬如牛乳,乳變為酪,酪為生酥,生酥為熟酥,熟酥為醍醐,醍醐為第一。象首!當有乳時,唯名為乳,不名為酪、酥、醍醐,如是,展轉至醍醐時,唯名醍醐,不名為乳,不名酪、酥。象首!此亦如是,若有欲界人身四大諸根時,無有欲界天身、色界天身、……乃至有想無想處天身,如是,展轉有有想無想處天身時,唯有有想無想處天身,無有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身、色界天身、……乃至無所有天身。 
  象首!於汝意云何?若有人問汝言:『若有過去身時,有未來、現在身一時有不?有未來身時,有過去、現在身一時有不?有現在身時,有過去、未來身一時有不?』設有此問者,汝云何報?」 
  象首言: 
  「設有如是問者,我當報言:『有過去身時,唯是過去身,無未來、現在;有未來身時,唯是未來身,無過去、現在;有現在身時,唯是現在身,無過去、未來身。』」 
  「象首!此亦如是,有欲界人身四大諸根時,無欲界天身,色界天身,……乃至有想無想處天身,如是,展轉至有想無想處天身時,無有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身、色界天身、……至不用處天身。 
  復次,象首!若有人問汝言:『汝曾有過去已滅不?未來當生不?現在今有不?』設有是問者,汝當云何答?」 
  象首白佛言: 
  「若有是問者,當答彼言:『我曾有過去已滅,非不有也。有未來當生,非不有也。現在今有,非不有也。』」 
  佛言: 
  「象首!此亦如是,有欲界人身四大諸根時,無欲界天身,……乃至有想無想天身,如是,展轉至有想無想天身時,無有欲界人身四大諸根,及欲界天身,……乃至無所有處天身。」 
  爾時,象首白佛言: 
  「世尊!我今歸依佛,歸依法,歸依僧,聽我於正法中為優婆塞,自今已後,盡形壽不殺、不盜、不婬、不欺、不飲酒。」 
  時,布吒婆樓梵志白佛言: 
  「我得於佛法中出家受戒不?」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「若有異學欲於我法中出家為道者,先四月觀察,稱眾人意,然後乃得出家受戒,雖有是法,亦觀{}[?]耳。」 
  梵志白佛言: 
  「諸有異學欲於佛法中出家受戒者,先當四月觀察,稱眾人意,然後乃得出家受戒,如我今者,乃能於佛法中四歲觀察,稱眾人意,然後乃望出家受戒。」 
  佛告梵志: 
  「我先語汝,雖有是法,當觀其人。」 
  時,彼梵志即於正法中得出家受戒。如是,不久,以信堅固,淨修梵行,於現法中自身作證:生死已盡,所作已辦,不受後有,即成阿羅漢。 
  爾時,布吒婆樓聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。 

英文版/

Potthapada Sutta: About Potthapada

translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 2003

Translator's Introduction

This sutta portrays two modes by which the Buddha responded to the controversial issues of his day. The first mode — illustrated by his contribution to the discussion on the ultimate cessation of perception — was to adopt the terms of the discussion but to invest them with his own meanings, and then to try to direct the discussion to the practice leading to the cessation of suffering & stress. The second mode — illustrated by his treatment of whether the cosmos is eternal, etc. — was to declare the issues as unconducive to awakening, and to refuse to take a position on them.

Several other suttas — such as MN 63, MN 72, and AN 10.93 — portray the Buddha and his disciples adopting the second mode. This sutta is unusual in its extended portrait of the Buddha's adopting the first. Many of the technical terms he uses here — such as the perception of a refined truth, the peak of perception, the alert step-by step attainment of the ultimate cessation of perception, the acquisition of a self — are found no where else in the Canon. At the end of the sutta, he describes them as "the world's designations, the world's expressions, the world's ways of speaking, the world's descriptions, with which the Tathagata expresses himself but without grasping at them." In other words, he picks them up for the purpose at hand and then lets them go. Thus they are not to be regarded as central to his teaching. Instead, they should be read as examples of his ability to adapt the language of his interlocutors to his own purposes. For this reason, this sutta is best read only after you have read other suttas and are familiar with the more central concepts of the Buddha's teachings.

Of particular interest here is the Buddha's treatment of the three "acquisitions of a self." The first — the gross self — refers to the ordinary, everyday sense of identifying with one's body. The latter two — the mind-made acquisition and the formless acquisition — refer to the sense of self that can be developed in meditation. The mind-made acquisition can result from an experience of the mind-made body — the "astral body" — that constitutes one of the powers that can be developed through concentration practice. The formless acquisition can result from any of the formless states of concentration — such as an experience of infinite space, infinite consciousness, or nothingness. Although meditators, on experiencing these states, might assume that they have encountered their "true self," the Buddha is careful to note that these are acquisitions, and that they are no more one's true self than the body is. They are one's acquisition of a self only for the time that one identifies with them. The Buddha goes on to say that he teaches the Dhamma for the sake of abandoning every acquisition of a self "such that, when you practice it, defiling mental qualities will be abandoned, bright mental qualities will grow, and you will enter & remain in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for yourself in the here & now."

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying near Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery. Now on that occasion Potthapada the wanderer, together with a large following of about 300 wanderers, had taken up residence in the debating hall near the Tinduka tree in the single-pavilion park of Queen Mallika. Then the Blessed One, early in the morning, taking his robes & bowl, entered Savatthi for alms. Then the thought occurred to him, "While it's still too early to go into Savatthi for alms, why don't I go to the debating hall near the Tinduka tree in the single-pavilion park of Queen Mallika to see Potthapada the wanderer?" So he went to the debating hall near the Tinduka tree in the single-pavilion park of Queen Mallika.

Now on that occasion Potthapada the wanderer was sitting with his large following of wanderers, all making a great noise & racket, discussing many kinds of bestial topics of conversation: conversation about kings, robbers, & ministers of state; armies, alarms, & battles; food & drink; clothing, furniture, garlands, & scents; relatives; vehicles; villages, towns, cities, the countryside; women & heroes; the gossip of the street & the well; tales of the dead; tales of diversity, the creation of the world & of the sea; talk of whether things exist or not. Then Potthapada the wanderer saw the Blessed One coming from afar, and on seeing him, hushed his following: "Be quiet, good sirs. Don't make any noise. Here comes Gotama the contemplative. He is fond of quietude and speaks in praise of quietude. Maybe, if he perceives our group as quiet, he will consider it worth his while to come our way." So the wanderers fell silent.

Then the Blessed One went to Potthapada, and Potthapada said to him, "Come, Blessed One. Welcome, Blessed One. It's been a long time since the Blessed One has gone out of his way to come here. Sit down, Blessed One. This seat has been prepared." So the Blessed One sat on the prepared seat. Potthapada, taking a lower seat, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, the Blessed One said to him, "For what topic of conversation are you gathered together here? In the midst of what topic of conversation have you been interrupted?"

When this was said, Potthapada replied, "Never mind, lord, about the topic of conversation for which we have gathered here. It won't be difficult for the Blessed One to hear about that later. For the past few days a discussion has arisen among the many sects of brahmans & contemplatives gathered and sitting together in the debating hall, concerning the ultimate cessation of perception: 'How is there the ultimate cessation of perception?' With regard to this, some said, 'A person's perception arises and ceases without cause, without reason. When it arises, one is percipient. When it ceases, one is not percipient.' [1] That's how one group described the ultimate cessation of perception.

"Then someone else said, 'No, that's not how it is. Perception is a person's self, which comes and goes. When it comes, one is percipient. When it goes, one is not percipient.' That's how one group described the ultimate cessation of perception.

"Then someone else said, 'No, that's not how it is, for there are brahmans & contemplatives of great power, great potency. They draw perception in and out of a person. When they draw it in, one is percipient. When they draw it out, one is not percipient.' That's how one group described the ultimate cessation of perception.

"Then someone else said, 'No, that's not how it is, for there are devas of great power, great potency. They draw perception in and out of a person. When they draw it in, one is percipient. When they draw it out, one is not percipient.' That's how one group described the ultimate cessation of perception.

"Then the memory of the Blessed One arose within me: 'Ah, the Blessed One! Ah, the One Well-gone — who surely is well-skilled in these matters.' The Blessed One is skilled and expert in the ultimate cessation of perception. So what, lord, is the ultimate cessation of perception?"

"In this regard, Potthapada, those brahmans & contemplatives who say that a person's perception arises & ceases without cause, without reason, are wrong from the very start. Why is that? Because a person's perception arises & ceases with a cause, with a reason. With training, one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. And what is that training?

"There is the case where a Tathagata appears in the world, worthy and rightly self-awakened. [as in DN 2] ...

"This is how a monk is consummate in virtue...

"Seeing that these five hindrances have been abandoned within him, he becomes glad. Glad, he becomes enraptured. Enraptured, his body grows tranquil. His body tranquil, he is sensitive to pleasure. Feeling pleasure, his mind becomes concentrated.

"Quite withdrawn from sensual pleasures, withdrawn from unskillful mental qualities, the monk enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. His earlier perception of sensuality ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of seclusion. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of seclusion. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"Then, with the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, the monk enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. His earlier perception of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of seclusion ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of concentration. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of concentration. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"And then, with the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.' His earlier perception of a refined truth of rapture & pleasure born of concentration ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of equanimity. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of equanimity. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"And then, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — the monk enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. His earlier perception of a refined truth of equanimity ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of neither pleasure nor pain. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of neither pleasure nor pain. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"And then, with the complete transcending of perceptions of [physical] form, with the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, and not heeding perceptions of diversity, [perceiving,] 'Infinite space,' the monk enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of space. His earlier perception of a refined truth of neither pleasure nor pain ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of space. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of space. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"And then, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of space, [perceiving,] 'Infinite consciousness,' the monk enters & remains in the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. His earlier perception of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of space ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases.

"And then, with the complete transcending of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, [thinking,] 'There is nothing,' enters & remains in the dimension of nothingness. His earlier perception of a refined truth of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness ceases, and on that occasion there is a perception of a refined truth of the dimension of nothingness. On that occasion he is one who is percipient of a refined truth of the dimension of nothingness. And thus it is that with training one perception arises and with training another perception ceases. [2]

"Now, when the monk is percipient of himself here, then from there to there, step by step, he touches the peak of perception. As he remains at the peak of perception, the thought occurs to him, 'Thinking is bad for me. Not thinking is better for me. If I were to think and will, this perception of mine would cease, and a grosser perception would appear. What if I were neither to think nor to will?' [3] So he neither thinks nor wills, and as he is neither thinking nor willing, that perception ceases [4] and another, grosser perception does not appear. He touches cessation. This, Potthapada, is how there is the alert [5] step-by step attainment of the ultimate cessation of perception.

"Now what do you think, Potthapada — have you ever before heard of such an alert step-by step attainment of the ultimate cessation of perception?"

"No, lord. And here is how I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One: 'When the monk is percipient of himself here, then from there to there, step by step, he touches the peak of perception. As he remains at the peak of perception, the thought occurs to him, "Thinking is bad for me. Not thinking is better for me. If I were to think and will, this perception of mine would cease, and a grosser perception would appear. What if I were neither to think nor to will?" So he neither thinks nor wills, and as he is neither thinking nor willing, that perception ceases and another, grosser perception does not appear. He touches cessation. This, Potthapada, is how there is the alert step-by step attainment of the ultimate cessation of perception.'"

"That's right, Potthapada."

"But, lord, does the Blessed One describe one peak of perception or many peaks of perception?"

"Potthapada, I describe one peak of perception and many peaks of perception."

"And how does the Blessed One describe one peak of perception and many peaks of perception?"

"In whatever way one touches cessation, Potthapada, that's the way I describe the peak of perception. [6] That's how I describe one peak of perception and many peaks of perception."

"Now, lord, does perception arise first, and knowledge after; or does knowledge arise first, and perception after; or do perception & knowledge arise simultaneously?"

"Potthapada, perception arises first, and knowledge after. And the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception. One discerns, 'It's in dependence on this [7] that my knowledge has arisen.' Through this line of reasoning one can realize how perception arises first, and knowledge after, and how the arising of knowledge comes from the arising of perception."

"Now, lord, is perception a person's self, or is perception one thing and self another?"

"What self do you posit, Potthapada?"

"I posit a gross self, possessed of form, made up of the four great existents [earth, water, fire, and wind], feeding on physical food."

"Then, Potthapada, your self would be gross, possessed of form, made up of the four great existents, feeding on physical food. That being the case, then for you perception would be one thing and self another. And it's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another: even as there remains this gross self — possessed of form, made up of the four great existents, and feeding on food — one perception arises for that person as another perception passes away. It's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another."

"Then, lord, I posit a mind-made self complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties." [8]

"Then, Potthapada, your self would be mind-made, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties. That being the case, then for you perception would be one thing and self another. And it's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another: even as there remains this mind-made self — complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties — one perception arises for that person as another perception passes away. It's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another."

"Then, lord, I posit a formless self made of perception."

"Then, Potthapada, your self would be formless and made of perception. That being the case, then for you perception would be one thing and self another. And it's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another: even as there remains this formless self made of perception, one perception arises for that person as another perception passes away. It's through this line of reasoning that one can realize how perception will be one thing and self another."

"Is it possible for me to know, lord, whether perception is a person's self or if perception is one thing and self another?"

"Potthapada — having other views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers — it's hard for you to know whether perception is a person's self or if perception is one thing and self another."

"Well then, lord, if — having other views, other practices, other satisfactions, other aims, other teachers — it's hard for me to know whether perception is a person's self or if perception is one thing and self another, then is it the case that the cosmos is eternal, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless?"

"Potthapada, I haven't expounded that the cosmos is eternal, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless."

"Then is it the case that the cosmos is not eternal, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless?"

"Potthapada, I haven't expounded that the cosmos is not eternal, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless."

"Then is it the case that the cosmos is finite... the cosmos is infinite... the soul & the body are the same... the soul is one thing and the body another... after death a Tathagata exists... after death a Tathagata does not exist... after death a Tathagata both exists & does not exist... after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless?"

"Potthapada, I haven't expounded that after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist, that only this is true and anything otherwise is worthless."

"But why hasn't the Blessed One expounded these things?"

"Because they are not conducive to the goal, are not conducive to the Dhamma, are not basic to the holy life. They don't lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. That's why I haven't expounded them."

"And what has the Blessed One expounded?"

"I have expounded that, 'This is stress'... 'This is the origination of stress'... 'This is the cessation of stress'... 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress.'

"And why has the Blessed One expounded these things?"

"Because they are conducive to the goal, conducive to the Dhamma, and basic to the holy life. They lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. That's why I have expounded them."

"So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. Well now, it's time for the Blessed One to do as he sees fit."

Then the Blessed One got up from his seat and left.

Not long after he had left, the wanderers, with sneering words, jeered at Potthapada the wanderer from all sides: "So, whatever Gotama the contemplative says, Sir Potthapada rejoices in his every word: 'So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone.' But we don't understand Gotama the contemplative as having taught any categorical teaching as to whether the cosmos is infinite or the cosmos is finite or... whether after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist."

When this was said, Potthapada the wanderer replied to the wanderers, "I, too, don't understand Gotama the contemplative as having taught any categorical teaching as to whether the cosmos is infinite or the cosmos is finite or... whether after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist. But Gotama the contemplative describes a genuine, authentic, and accurate practice, grounded in the Dhamma and consonant with the Dhamma. And when a genuine, authentic, and accurate practice, grounded in the Dhamma and consonant with the Dhamma is being explained, why shouldn't a knowledgeable person such as myself rejoice in the well-spokenness of Gotama the contemplative's well-spoken words?"

Then two or three days later, Citta the elephant trainer's son and Potthapada the wanderer went to the Blessed One. On their arrival, Citta bowed down to the Blessed One and sat to one side, while Potthapada the wanderer greeted the Blessed One courteously. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: "The other day, not long after the Blessed One had left, the wanderers, with sneering words, jeered at me from all sides: 'So, whatever Gotama the contemplative says, Sir Potthapada rejoices in his every word: "So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone." But we don't understand Gotama the contemplative as having taught any categorical teaching as to whether the cosmos is infinite or the cosmos is finite or... whether after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist.'

"When this was said, I replied to the wanderers, 'I, too, don't understand Gotama the contemplative as having taught any categorical teaching as to whether the cosmos is infinite or the cosmos is finite or... whether after death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist. But Gotama the contemplative describes a genuine, authentic, and accurate practice, grounded in the Dhamma and consonant with the Dhamma. And when a genuine, authentic, and accurate practice, grounded in the Dhamma and consonant with the Dhamma is being explained, why shouldn't a knowledgeable person such as myself rejoice in the well-spokenness of Gotama the contemplative's well-spoken words?'"

[The Buddha:] "Potthapada, all those wanderers are blind and have no eyes. You alone among them have eyes. I have taught and declared some teachings to be categorical, and some teachings to be non-categorical. And what are the teachings that I have taught and declared to be non-categorical? [The statement that] 'The cosmos is eternal' I have taught and declared to be an non-categorical teaching. [The statement that] 'The cosmos is not eternal'... 'The cosmos is finite'... 'The cosmos is infinite'... 'The soul & the body are the same'... 'The soul is one thing and the body another'... 'After death a Tathagata exists'... 'After death a Tathagata does not exist'... 'After death a Tathagata both exists & does not exist'... 'After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist' I have taught and declared to be an non-categorical teaching. And why have I taught and declared these teachings to be non-categorical? Because they are not conducive to the goal, are not conducive to the Dhamma, are not basic to the holy life. They don't lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. That's why I have taught and declared them to be non-categorical.

"And what have I taught and declared to be categorical teachings? [The statement that] 'This is stress' I have taught and declared to be a categorical teaching. [The statement that] 'This is the origination of stress'... 'This is the cessation of stress'... 'This is the path of practice leading to the cessation of stress' I have taught and declared to be a categorical teaching. And why have I taught and declared these teachings to be categorical? Because they are conducive to the goal, conducive to the Dhamma, and basic to the holy life. They lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding. That's why I have taught and declared them to be categorical.

"There are some brahmans & contemplatives with a doctrine & view like this: 'After death, the self is exclusively happy and free from disease.' I approached them and asked them, 'Is it true that you have a doctrine & view like this: "After death, the self is exclusively happy and free from disease"?' When asked this, they replied, 'Yes.' So I asked them, 'But do you dwell having known or seen an exclusively happy world?' When asked this, they said, 'No.' So I asked them, 'But have you ever been aware of a self exclusively happy for a day or a night, or for half a day or half a night?' When asked this, they said, 'No.' So I asked them, 'But do you know that "This is the path, this is the practice for the realization of an exclusively happy world"?' When asked this, they said, 'No.' So I asked them, 'But have you heard the voices of devas reborn in an exclusively happy world, saying, "Practice well, my dears. Practice straightforwardly, my dears, for the realization of an exclusively happy world, because it was through such a practice that we ourselves have been reborn in an exclusively happy world"?' When asked this, they said, 'No.'

"So what do you think, Potthapada — when this is the case, don't the words of those brahmans & contemplatives turn out to be unconvincing?"

"Yes, lord. When this is the case, the words of those brahmans & contemplatives turn out to be unconvincing."

"Potthapada, it's as if a man were to say, 'I'm in love with the most beautiful woman in this country,' and other people were to say to him, 'Well, my good man, this most beautiful woman in this country with whom you are in love: do you know if she's of the warrior caste, the priestly caste, the merchant caste, or the laborer caste?' and, when asked this, he would say, 'No.' Then they would say to him, 'Well then, do you know her name or clan name? Whether she's tall, short, or of medium height? Whether she's dark, fair, or ruddy-skinned? Do you know what village or town or city she's from?' When asked this, he would say, 'No.' Then they would say to him, 'So you've never known or seen the woman you're in love with?' When asked this, he would say, 'Yes.'

"So what do you think, Potthapada — when this is the case, don't the words of that man turn out to be unconvincing?"

"Yes, lord..."

"In the same way, there are some brahmans & contemplatives with a doctrine & view like this: 'After death, the self is exclusively happy and free from disease.'... Don't the words of those brahmans & contemplatives turn out to be unconvincing?"

"Yes, lord..."

"Potthapada, it's as if a man at a crossroads were to build a staircase for ascending to a palace, and other people were to say to him, 'Well, my good man, this palace for which you are building a staircase: do you know whether it's east, west, north, or south of here? Whether it's high, low, or in between?' and, when asked this, he would say, 'No.' Then they would say to him, 'So you don't know or see the palace for which you are building a staircase?' When asked this, he would say, 'Yes.'

"So what do you think, Potthapada — when this is the case, don't the words of that man turn out to be unconvincing?"

"Yes, lord..."

"In the same way, there are some brahmans & contemplatives with a doctrine & view like this: 'After death, the self is exclusively happy and free from disease.'... Don't the words of those brahmans & contemplatives turn out to be unconvincing?"

"Yes, lord. When this is the case, the words of those brahmans & contemplatives turn out to be unconvincing."

"Potthapada, there are these three acquisitions of a self: the gross acquisition of a self, the mind-made acquisition of a self, and the formless acquisition of a self. [9] And what is the gross acquisition of a self? Possessed of form, made up of the four great existents, feeding on physical food: this is the gross acquisition of a self. And what is the mind-made acquisition of a self? Possessed of form, mind-made, complete in all its parts, not inferior in its faculties: this is the mind-made acquisition of a self. And what is the formless acquisition of a self? Formless and made of perception: this is the formless acquisition of a self.

"I teach the Dhamma for the abandoning of the gross acquisition of a self, such that, when you practice it, defiling mental qualities will be abandoned, bright mental qualities will grow, and you will enter & remain in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for yourself in the here & now. If the thought should occur to you that, when defiling mental qualities are abandoned and bright mental qualities have grown, and one enters & remains in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for oneself in the here & now, one's abiding is stressful/painful, you should not see it in that way. When defiling mental qualities are abandoned and bright mental qualities have grown, and one enters & remains in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for oneself in the here & now, there is joy, rapture, serenity, mindfulness, alertness, and a pleasant/happy abiding.

"I also teach the Dhamma for the abandoning of the mind-made acquisition of a self... for the abandoning of the formless acquisition of a self, such that, when you practice it, defiling mental qualities will be abandoned, bright mental qualities will grow, and you will enter & remain in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for yourself in the here & now... When defiling mental qualities are abandoned and bright mental qualities have grown, and one enters & remains in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for oneself in the here & now, there is joy, rapture, serenity, mindfulness, alertness, and a pleasant/happy abiding.

"In the past, I have been asked, 'What, friend, is the gross acquisition of a self for whose abandoning you teach the Dhamma such that, when you practice it, defiling mental qualities will be abandoned, bright mental qualities will grow, and you will enter & remain in the culmination & abundance of discernment, having known & realized it for yourself in the here & now?' When asked this, I would answer, 'This, friend, is that gross acquisition of a self for whose abandoning I teach the Dhamma...'

"In the past, I have been asked, 'What, friend, is the mind-made acquisition of a self... the formless acquisition of a self for whose abandoning you teach the Dhamma...?' When asked this, I would answer, 'This, friend, is that gross acquisition of a self for whose abandoning I teach the Dhamma...'

"What do you think, Potthapada. When this is the case, don't those words turn out to be convincing?"

"Yes, lord. When this is the case, those words turn out to be convincing."

"Potthapada, it's as if a man at a crossroads were to build a staircase for ascending to a palace, and other people were to say to him, 'Well, my good man, this palace for which you are building a staircase: do you know whether it's east, west, north, or south of here? Whether it's high, low, or in between?' He would say, 'This, friends, is the palace to which I am building a staircase. The staircase is right under the palace.'

"So what do you think, Potthapada — when this is the case, don't the words of that man turn out to be convincing?"

"Yes, lord..."

"In the same way, in the past I have been asked, 'What, friend, is the gross acquisition of a self... the mind-made acquisition of a self... the formless acquisition of a self for whose abandoning you teach the Dhamma...?' When asked this, I would answer, 'This, friend, is that gross acquisition of a self for whose abandoning I teach the Dhamma...'

"What do you think, Potthapada. When this is the case, don't those words turn out to be convincing?"

"Yes, lord. When this is the case, those words turn out to be convincing."

When this was said, Citta the elephant trainer's son said to the Blessed One: "When there is a gross acquisition of a self, is it the case then that one's mind-made acquisition of a self and formless acquisition of a self are null & void, and only one's gross acquisition of a self is true? And when there is a mind-made acquisition of a self, is it the case then that one's gross acquisition of a self and formless acquisition of a self are null & void, and only one's mind-made acquisition of a self is true? And when there is a formless acquisition of a self, is it the case then that one's gross acquisition of a self and mind-made acquisition of a self are null & void, and only one's formless acquisition of a self is true?"

"Citta, when there is a gross acquisition of a self, it's not classified either as a mind-made acquisition of a self or as a formless acquisition of a self. It's classified just as a gross acquisition of a self. When there is a mind-made acquisition of a self, it's not classified either as a gross acquisition of a self or as a formless acquisition of a self. It's classified just as a mind-made acquisition of a self. When there is a formless acquisition of a self, it's not classified either as a gross acquisition of a self or as a mind-made acquisition of a self. It is classified just as a formless acquisition of a self.

"Suppose they were to ask you: 'Did you exist in the past? Did you not not exist? Will you exist in the future? Will you not not exist? Do you exist now? Do you not not exist?' Thus asked, how would you answer?"

"... Thus asked, lord, I would answer: 'I existed in the past. I did not not exist. I will exist in the future. I will not not exist. I exist now. I do not not exist.'... That's how I would answer."

"Suppose, Citta, they were to ask you: 'Whatever your past acquisition of a self: Is that alone your true acquisition of self, while the future & present ones are null & void? Whatever your future acquisition of a self: Is that alone your true acquisition of a self, while the past & present ones are null & void? Whatever your present acquisition of a self: Is that alone your true acquisition of a self, while the past & future ones are null & void?' Thus asked, how would you answer?"

"...Thus asked, lord, I would answer: 'Whatever my past acquisition of a self: on that occasion, that alone was my true acquisition of a self, while future & present ones were null & void. Whatever my future acquisition of a self: on that occasion, that alone will be my true acquisition of a self, while the past & present ones will be null & void. Whatever my present acquisition of a self: on that occasion, that alone is my true acquisition of a self, while the past & future ones are null & void.

"In the same way, Citta, when there is a gross acquisition of a self... it's classified just as a gross acquisition of a self. When there is a mind-made acquisition of a self... When there is a formless acquisition of a self, it's not classified either as a gross acquisition of a self or as a mind-made acquisition of a self. It's classified just as a formless acquisition of a self.

"Just as when milk comes from a cow, curds from milk, butter from curds, ghee from butter, and the skimmings of ghee from ghee. When there is milk, it's not classified as curds, butter, ghee, or skimmings of ghee. It's classified just as milk. When there are curds... When there is butter... When there is ghee... When there are the skimmings of ghee, they're not classified as milk, curds, butter, or ghee. They're classified just as the skimmings of ghee.

"In the same way, when there is a gross acquisition of a self... it's classified just as a gross acquisition of a self. When there is a mind-made acquisition of a self... When there is a formless acquisition of a self, it's not classified either as a gross acquisition of a self or as a mind-made acquisition of a self. It's classified just as a formless acquisition of a self.

"Citta, these are the world's designations, the world's expressions, the world's ways of speaking, the world's descriptions, with which the Tathagata expresses himself but without grasping to them." [10]

When this was said, Potthapada the wanderer said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has Master Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

But Citta the elephant trainer's son said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned... in the same way has Master Gotama — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. I go to Master Gotama for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. Let me obtain the Going Forth in the Blessed One's presence! Let me obtain Acceptance!"

So Citta the elephant trainer's son obtained the Going Forth in the Blessed One's presence; he obtained Acceptance. And not long after his Acceptance — dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute — he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the holy life, for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: "Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world." And thus Ven. Elephant-trainer's Son [11] became another one of the arahants.

 

巴利語經文

DN.9/(9) Poṭṭhapādasuttaṃ
Poṭṭhapādaparibbājakavatthu
   406. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tena kho pana samayena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako samayappavādake tindukācīre ekasālake mallikāya ārāme paṭivasati mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṃ tiṃsamattehi paribbājakasatehi. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya sāvatthiṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
   407. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi– “atippago kho tāva sāvatthiyaṃ piṇḍāya carituṃ. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo, yena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako tenupasaṅkameyyan”ti. Atha kho bhagavā yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo tenupasaṅkami.
   408. Tena kho pana samayena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṃ nisinno hoti unnādiniyā uccāsaddamahāsaddāya anekavihitaṃ tiracchānakathaṃ kathentiyā. Seyyathidaṃ– rājakathaṃ corakathaṃ mahāmattakathaṃ senākathaṃ bhayakathaṃ yuddhakathaṃ annakathaṃ pānakathaṃ vatthakathaṃ sayanakathaṃ mālākathaṃ gandhakathaṃ ñātikathaṃ yānakathaṃ gāmakathaṃ nigamakathaṃ nagarakathaṃ janapadakathaṃ itthikathaṃ sūrakathaṃ visikhākathaṃ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṃ pubbapetakathaṃ nānattakathaṃ lokakkhāyikaṃ samuddakkhāyikaṃ itibhavābhavakathaṃ iti vā.
   409. Addasā kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ; disvāna sakaṃ parisaṃ saṇṭhapesi– “appasaddā bhonto hontu, mā bhonto saddamakattha. Ayaṃ samaṇo gotamo āgacchati. Appasaddakāmo kho so āyasmā appasaddassa vaṇṇavādī. Appeva nāma appasaddaṃ parisaṃ viditvā upasaṅkamitabbaṃ maññeyyā”ti. Evaṃ vutte te paribbājakā tuṇhī ahesuṃ.
   410. Atha kho bhagavā yena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “etu kho, bhante, bhagavā. Svāgataṃ, bhante, bhagavato. Cirassaṃ kho, bhante, bhagavā imaṃ pariyāyamakāsi, yadidaṃ idhāgamanāya. Nisīdatu, bhante, bhagavā, idaṃ āsanaṃ paññattan”ti.
   Nisīdi bhagavā paññatte āsane. Poṭṭhapādopi kho paribbājako aññataraṃ nīcaṃ āsanaṃ gahetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho poṭṭhapādaṃ paribbājakaṃ bhagavā etadavoca– “kāya nuttha, poṭṭhapāda, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā, kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā”ti?
Abhisaññānirodhakathā
   411. Evaṃ vutte poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “tiṭṭhatesā, bhante, kathā, yāya mayaṃ etarahi kathāya sannisinnā. Nesā, bhante, kathā bhagavato dullabhā bhavissati pacchāpi savanāya. Purimāni, bhante, divasāni purimatarāni, nānātitthiyānaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ kotūhalasālāya sannisinnānaṃ sannipatitānaṃ abhisaññānirodhe kathā udapādi– ‘kathaṃ nu kho, bho, abhisaññānirodho hotī’ti? Tatrekacce evamāhaṃsu ‘ahetū appaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipi. Yasmiṃ samaye uppajjanti, saññī tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye nirujjhanti, asaññī tasmiṃ samaye hotī’ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṃ paññapenti.
   “Tamañño evamāha– ‘na kho pana metaṃ, bho, evaṃ bhavissati. Saññā hi, bho, purisassa attā. Sā ca kho upetipi apetipi. Yasmiṃ samaye upeti, saññī tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye apeti, asaññī tasmiṃ samaye hotī’ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṃ paññapenti.
   “Tamañño evamāha– ‘na kho pana metaṃ, bho, evaṃ bhavissati. Santi hi, bho, samaṇabrāhmaṇā mahiddhikā mahānubhāvā. Te imassa purisassa saññaṃ upakaḍḍhantipi apakaḍḍhantipi. Yasmiṃ samaye upakaḍḍhanti, saññī tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye apakaḍḍhanti, asaññī tasmiṃ samaye hotī’ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṃ paññapenti.
   “Tamañño evamāha– ‘na kho pana metaṃ, bho, evaṃ bhavissati. Santi hi, bho, devatā mahiddhikā mahānubhāvā. Tā imassa purisassa saññaṃ upakaḍḍhantipi apakaḍḍhantipi. Yasmiṃ samaye upakaḍḍhanti, saññī tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye apakaḍḍhanti, asaññī tasmiṃ samaye hotī’ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṃ paññapenti.
   “Tassa mayhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃyeva ārabbha sati udapādi– ‘aho nūna bhagavā, aho nūna sugato, yo imesaṃ dhammānaṃ sukusalo’ti. Bhagavā, bhante, kusalo, bhagavā pakataññū abhisaññānirodhassa. Kathaṃ nu kho, bhante, abhisaññānirodho hotī”ti?
Sahetukasaññuppādanirodhakathā
   412. “Tatra poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ahetū appaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipī’ti, āditova tesaṃ aparaddhaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu? Sahetū hi, poṭṭhapāda, sappaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipi. Sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati”.
   413. “Kā ca sikkhā”ti? Bhagavā avoca– “idha, poṭṭhapāda, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ, sammāsambuddho …pe… (yathā 190-212anucchedesu, evaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ). Evaṃ kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti …pe… tassime pañcanīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassato pāmojjaṃ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati. So vivicceva kāmehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā kāmasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, vivekajapītisukhasukhuma-saccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayaṃ sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā vivekajapītisukhasukhuma-saccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti– “upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī”ti, tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Upekkhāsukhasukhuma-saccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, upekkhāsukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā upekkhāsukhasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Adukkhamasukhasukhumasacca-saññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, adukkhamasukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā rūpasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Ākāsānañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, ākāsānañcāyatana-sukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā ākāsānañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Viññāṇañcāyatana-sukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   “Puna caparaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Ākiñcaññāyatana-sukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṃ samaye hoti, ākiñcaññāyatanasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā”ti bhagavā avoca.
   414. “Yato kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti, so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṃ phusati. Tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṃ hoti– ‘cetayamānassa me pāpiyo, acetayamānassa me seyyo. Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṃ, abhisaṅkhareyyaṃ, imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṃ, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṃ; yaṃnūnāhaṃ na ceva ceteyyaṃ na ca abhisaṅkhareyyan’ti. So na ceva ceteti, na ca abhisaṅkharoti. Tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti. So nirodhaṃ phusati. Evaṃ kho, poṭṭhapāda, anupubbābhisaññānirodha-sampajāna-samāpatti hoti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, api nu te ito pubbe evarūpā anupubbābhisaññānirodha-sampajāna-samāpatti sutapubbā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante. Evaṃ kho ahaṃ bhante, bhagavato bhāsitaṃ ājānāmi– ‘yato kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti, so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṃ phusati, tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṃ hoti– “cetayamānassa me pāpiyo, acetayamānassa me seyyo. Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṃ abhisaṅkhareyyaṃ, imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṃ, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṃ; yaṃnūnāhaṃ na ceva ceteyyaṃ, na ca abhisaṅkhareyyan”ti. So na ceva ceteti, na cābhisaṅkharoti, tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti So nirodhaṃ phusati. Evaṃ kho, poṭṭhapāda, anupubbābhisaññānirodha-sampajāna-samāpatti hotī’”ti. “Evaṃ, poṭṭhapādā”ti.
   415. “Ekaññeva nu kho, bhante, bhagavā saññaggaṃ paññapeti, udāhu puthūpi saññagge paññapetī”ti? “Ekampi kho ahaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, saññaggaṃ paññapemi, puthūpi saññagge paññapemī”ti. “Yathā kathaṃ pana, bhante, bhagavā ekampi saññaggaṃ paññapeti, puthūpi saññagge paññapetī”ti? “Yathā yathā kho, poṭṭhapāda, nirodhaṃ phusati, tathā tathāhaṃ saññaggaṃ paññapemi. Evaṃ kho ahaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, ekampi saññaggaṃ paññapemi, puthūpi saññagge paññapemī”ti.
   416. “Saññā nu kho, bhante, paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ, udāhu ñāṇaṃ paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā saññā, udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṃ acarimaṃ uppajjantī”ti? “Saññā kho, poṭṭhapāda, paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādā ca pana ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṃ udapādī’ti. Iminā kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ – yathā saññā paṭhamaṃ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṃ, saññuppādā ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī”ti.
Saññā-attakathā
   417. “Saññā nu kho, bhante, purisassa attā, udāhu aññā saññā añño attā”ti? “Kaṃ pana tvaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, attānaṃ paccesī”ti “Oḷārikaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, attānaṃ paccemi rūpiṃ cātumahābhūtikaṃ kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkhan”ti. “Oḷāriko ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho. Evaṃ santaṃ kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, oḷāriko attā rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Iminā kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā”ti.
   418. “Manomayaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, attānaṃ paccemi sabbaṅgapaccaṅgiṃ ahīnindriyan”ti. “Manomayo ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa sabbaṅgapaccaṅgī ahīnindriyo, evaṃ santampi kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, manomayo attā sabbaṅgapaccaṅgī ahīnindriyo, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Imināpi kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā”ti.
   419. “Arūpiṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante, attānaṃ paccemi saññāmayan”ti. “Arūpī ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa saññāmayo, evaṃ santampi kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, arūpī attā saññāmayo, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Imināpi kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā”ti.
   420. “Sakkā panetaṃ, bhante, mayā ñātuṃ– ‘saññā purisassa attā’ti vā ‘aññāva saññā añño attāti vā’ti? “Dujjānaṃ kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, tayā aññadiṭṭhikena aññakhantikena aññarucikena aññatrāyogena aññatrācariyakena– ‘saññā purisassa attā’ti vā, ‘aññāva saññā añño attāti vā’”ti.
   “Sace taṃ, bhante, mayā dujjānaṃ aññadiṭṭhikena aññakhantikena aññarucikena aññatrāyogena aññatrācariyakena– ‘saññā purisassa attā’ti vā, ‘aññāva saññā añño attā’ti vā; ‘kiṃ pana, bhante, sassato loko, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’ti? Abyākataṃ kho etaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, mayā– ‘sassato loko, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’ti.
   “Kiṃ pana, bhante, ‘asassato loko, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’”ti “Etampi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā abyākataṃ– ‘asassato loko, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’”ti.
   “Kiṃ pana, bhante, ‘antavā loko …pe… ‘anantavā loko ‘taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīraṃ… ‘aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīraṃ… ‘hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā… ‘na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā… ‘hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā… ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’”ti? “Etampi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā abyākataṃ– ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā, idameva saccaṃ moghamaññan’”ti.
   “Kasmā panetaṃ, bhante, bhagavatā abyākatan”ti? “Na hetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṃhitaṃ na dhammasaṃhitaṃ nādibrahmacariyakaṃ, na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati, tasmā etaṃ mayā abyākatan”ti.
   “Kiṃ pana, bhante, bhagavatā byākatan”ti? “Idaṃ dukkhanti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhasamudayoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṃ. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākatan”ti.
   “Kasmā panetaṃ, bhante, bhagavatā byākatan”ti? “Etañhi, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṃhitaṃ, etaṃ dhammasaṃhitaṃ, etaṃ ādibrahmacariyakaṃ, etaṃ nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati; tasmā etaṃ mayā byākatan”ti. “Evametaṃ, bhagavā, evametaṃ, sugata Yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṃ maññatī”ti. Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.
   421. Atha kho te paribbājakā acirapakkantassa bhagavato poṭṭhapādaṃ paribbājakaṃ samantato vācā sannitodakena sañjhabbharimakaṃsu– “evameva panāyaṃ bhavaṃ poṭṭhapādo yaññadeva samaṇo gotamo bhāsati, taṃ tadevassa abbhanumodati– ‘evametaṃ bhagavā evametaṃ, sugatā’ti. Na kho pana mayaṃ kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṃsikaṃ dhammaṃ desitaṃ ājānāma– ‘sassato loko’ti vā, ‘asassato loko’ti vā, ‘antavā loko’ti vā, ‘anantavā loko’ti vā, ‘taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīran’ti vā, ‘aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīran’ti vā ‘hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti vā, ‘na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti vā, ‘hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti vā, ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti vā”ti.
   Evaṃ vutte poṭṭhapādo paribbājako te paribbājake etadavoca– “ahampi kho, bho, na kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṃsikaṃ dhammaṃ desitaṃ ājānāmi– ‘sassato loko’ti vā, ‘asassato loko’ti vā …pe… ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti vā; api ca samaṇo gotamo bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ tathaṃ paṭipadaṃ paññapeti dhammaṭṭhitataṃ dhammaniyāmataṃ. Bhūtaṃ kho pana tacchaṃ tathaṃ paṭipadaṃ paññapentassa dhammaṭṭhitataṃ dhammaniyāmataṃ, kathañhi nāma mādiso viññū samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṃ subhāsitato nābbhanumodeyyā”ti?
Cittahatthisāriputtapoṭṭhapādavatthu
   422. Atha kho dvīhatīhassa accayena citto ca hatthisāriputto poṭṭhapādo ca paribbājako yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā citto hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Poṭṭhapādo pana paribbājako bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “tadā maṃ, bhante, te paribbājakā acirapakkantassa bhagavato samantato vācāsannitodakena sañjhabbharimakaṃsu– ‘evameva panāyaṃ bhavaṃ poṭṭhapādo yaññadeva samaṇo gotamo bhāsati, taṃ tadevassa abbhanumodati– ‘evametaṃ bhagavā evametaṃ sugatā”ti. Na kho pana mayaṃ kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṃsikaṃ dhammaṃ desitaṃ ājānāma– “sassato loko”ti vā, “asassato loko”ti vā, “antavā loko”ti vā, “anantavā loko”ti vā, “taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīran”ti vā, “aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīran”ti vā, “hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā”ti vā, “na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā”ti vā, “hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā”ti vā, “neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā”ti vā’ti. Evaṃ vuttāhaṃ, bhante, te paribbājake etadavocaṃ– ‘ahampi kho, bho, na kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṃsikaṃ dhammaṃ desitaṃ ājānāmi– “sassato loko”ti vā, “asassato loko”ti vā …pe… “neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā”ti vā; api ca samaṇo gotamo bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ tathaṃ paṭipadaṃ paññapeti dhammaṭṭhitataṃ dhammaniyāmataṃ. Bhūtaṃ kho pana tacchaṃ tathaṃ paṭipadaṃ paññapentassa dhammaṭṭhitataṃ dhammaniyāmataṃ, kathañhi nāma mādiso viññū samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṃ subhāsitato nābbhanumodeyyā”ti?
   423. “Sabbeva kho ete, poṭṭhapāda, paribbājakā andhā acakkhukā; tvaṃyeva nesaṃ eko cakkhumā. Ekaṃsikāpi hi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā dhammā desitā paññattā; anekaṃsikāpi hi kho poṭṭhapāda, mayā dhammā desitā paññattā.
   “Katame ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? ‘Sassato loko’ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto; ‘asassato loko’ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto; ‘antavā loko’ti kho poṭṭhapāda …pe… ‘anantavā loko’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… ‘taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīran’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… ‘aññaṃ jīvaṃ aññaṃ sarīran’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… ‘hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… ‘hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti kho poṭṭhapāda… ‘neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṃ maraṇā’ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto.
   “Kasmā ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? Na hete, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṃhitā na dhammasaṃhitā na ādibrahmacariyakā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattanti. Tasmā te mayā anekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā”.
Ekaṃsikadhammo
   424. “Katame ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā Idaṃ dukkhanti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṃ dukkhasamudayoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsiko dhammo desito paññatto.
   “Kasmā ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? Ete, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṃhitā ete dhammasaṃhitā, ete ādibrahmacariyakā ete nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattanti. Tasmā te mayā ekaṃsikā dhammā desitā paññattā.
   425. “Santi, poṭṭhapāda, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’ti. Tyāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi– ‘saccaṃ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– “ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’ti? Te ce me evaṃ puṭṭhā ‘āmā’ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ jānaṃ passaṃ viharathā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṃ vā rattiṃ ekaṃ vā divasaṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā rattiṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā divasaṃ ekantasukhiṃ attānaṃ sañjānāthā’ti ? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha– “ayaṃ maggo ayaṃ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā’”ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā, tāsaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ saddaṃ suṇātha – “suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṃpaṭipannā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’ti Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   426. “Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso evaṃ vadeyya – ‘ahaṃ yā imasmiṃ janapade janapadakalyāṇī, taṃ icchāmi taṃ kāmemī’ti. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ambho purisa, yaṃ tvaṃ janapadakalyāṇiṃ icchasi kāmesi, jānāsi taṃ janapadakalyāṇiṃ khattiyī vā brāhmaṇī vā vessī vā suddī vā’ti? Iti puṭṭho ‘no’ti vadeyya. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ambho purisa yaṃ tvaṃ janapadakalyāṇiṃ icchasi kāmesi, jānāsi taṃ janapadakalyāṇiṃ evaṃnāmā evaṃgottāti vā, dīghā vā rassā vā majjhimā vā kāḷī vā sāmā vā maṅguracchavī vāti, amukasmiṃ gāme vā nigame vā nagare vā’ti? Iti puṭṭho ‘no’ti vadeyya. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ – ‘ambho purisa, yaṃ tvaṃ na jānāsi na passasi, taṃ tvaṃ icchasi kāmesī’ti? Iti puṭṭho ‘āmā’ti vadeyya.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   “Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’ti. Tyāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi– ‘saccaṃ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino “ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’”ti? Te ce me evaṃ puṭṭhā ‘āmā’ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ jānaṃ passaṃ viharathā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṃ vā rattiṃ ekaṃ vā divasaṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā rattiṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā divasaṃ ekantasukhiṃ attānaṃ sañjānāthā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha– “ayaṃ maggo ayaṃ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā, tāsaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ saddaṃ suṇātha – “suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṃpaṭipannā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’”ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   427. “Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso cātumahāpathe nisseṇiṃ kareyya pāsādassa ārohaṇāya. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ambho purisa, yassa tvaṃ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṃ karosi, jānāsi taṃ pāsādaṃ puratthimāya vā disāya dakkhiṇāya vā disāya pacchimāya vā disāya uttarāya vā disāya ucco vā nīco vā majjhimo vā’ti? Iti puṭṭho ‘no’ti vadeyya. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ambho purisa, yaṃ tvaṃ na jānāsi na passasi, tassa tvaṃ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṃ karosī’ti? Iti puṭṭho ‘āmā’ti vadeyya.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   “Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’ti. Tyāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi– ‘saccaṃ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– “ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṃ maraṇā’ti Te ce me evaṃ puṭṭhā ‘āmā’ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ jānaṃ passaṃ viharathā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṃ vā rattiṃ ekaṃ vā divasaṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā rattiṃ upaḍḍhaṃ vā divasaṃ ekantasukhiṃ attānaṃ sañjānāthā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti. Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha ayaṃ maggo ayaṃ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā ‘no’ti vadanti.
   “Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’ tāsaṃ devatānaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ saddaṃ suṇātha- “suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṃ paṭipannā ekantasukhaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’ti? Iti puṭṭhā “no”ti vadanti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ appāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
Tayo attapaṭilābhā
   428. “Tayo kho me, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhā– oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, manomayo attapaṭilābho, arūpo attapaṭilābho. Katamo ca, poṭṭhapāda, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho? Rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho, ayaṃ oḷāriko attapaṭilābho. Katamo manomayo attapaṭilābho? Rūpī manomayo sabbaṅgapaccaṅgī ahīnindriyo, ayaṃ manomayo attapaṭilābho. Katamo arūpo attapaṭilābho? Arūpī saññāmayo, ayaṃ arūpo attapaṭilābho.
   429. “Oḷārikassapi kho ahaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṃ desemi– yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathāti. Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa– saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāroti, na kho panetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Saṃkilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjaṃ ceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.
   430. “Manomayassapi kho ahaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṃ desemi yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathāti Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa– ‘saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāro’ti, na kho panetaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Saṃkilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjaṃ ceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.
   431. “Arūpassapi kho ahaṃ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṃ desemi yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathāti. Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa– ‘saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāro’ti, na kho panetaṃ poṭṭhapāda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Saṃkilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjaṃ ceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.
   432. “Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘katamo pana so, āvuso oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṃ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti, tesaṃ mayaṃ evaṃ puṭṭhā evaṃ byākareyyāma– ‘ayaṃ vā so, āvuso, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, yassa mayaṃ pahānāya dhammaṃ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti.
   433. “Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘katamo pana so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṃ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti? Tesaṃ mayaṃ evaṃ puṭṭhā evaṃ byākareyyāma– ‘ayaṃ vā so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho yassa mayaṃ pahānāya dhammaṃ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti.
   434. “Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘katamo pana so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṃ desetha yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti, tesaṃ mayaṃ evaṃ puṭṭhā evaṃ byākareyyāma– ‘ayaṃ vā so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho yassa mayaṃ pahānāya dhammaṃ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   435. “Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso nisseṇiṃ kareyya pāsādassa ārohaṇāya tasseva pāsādassa heṭṭhā. Tamenaṃ evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ambho purisa, yassa tvaṃ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṃ karosi, jānāsi taṃ pāsādaṃ, puratthimāya vā disāya dakkhiṇāya vā disāya pacchimāya vā disāya uttarāya vā disāya ucco vā nīco vā majjhimo vā’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘ayaṃ vā so, āvuso, pāsādo, yassāhaṃ ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṃ karomi, tasseva pāsādassa heṭṭhā’ti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante tassa purisassa sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante tassa purisassa sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   436. “Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, pare ce amhe evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘katamo pana so, āvuso, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho …pe… katamo pana so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho …pe… katamo pana so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṃ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti, tesaṃ mayaṃ evaṃ puṭṭhā evaṃ byākareyyāma– ‘ayaṃ vā so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa mayaṃ pahānāya dhammaṃ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṃ vo saṃkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṃ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā’ti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṃ sante sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti? “Addhā kho, bhante, evaṃ sante sappāṭihīrakataṃ bhāsitaṃ sampajjatī”ti.
   437. Evaṃ vutte citto hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “yasmiṃ, bhante, samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṃ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti; oḷāriko vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṃ samaye sacco hoti. Yasmiṃ, bhante, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti; manomayo vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṃ samaye sacco hoti. Yasmiṃ, bhante, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti; arūpo vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṃ samaye sacco hotī”ti.
   “Yasmiṃ, citta, samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati oḷāriko attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Yasmiṃ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; manomayo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Yasmiṃ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati.
   438. “Sace taṃ, citta, evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ahosi tvaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, na tvaṃ nāhosi; bhavissasi tvaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ, na tvaṃ na bhavissasi; atthi tvaṃ etarahi, na tvaṃ natthī’ti, evaṃ puṭṭho tvaṃ, citta, kinti byākareyyāsī”ti?
   “Sace maṃ, bhante, evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ahosi tvaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, na tvaṃ na ahosi; bhavissasi tvaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ, na tvaṃ na bhavissasi; atthi tvaṃ etarahi, na tvaṃ natthī’ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho ahaṃ, bhante, evaṃ byākareyyaṃ – ‘ahosāhaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ, nāhaṃ na ahosiṃ; bhavissāmahaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ, nāhaṃ na bhavissāmi; atthāhaṃ etarahi, nāhaṃ natthī’ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho ahaṃ, bhante, evaṃ byākareyyan”ti.
   “Sace pana taṃ, citta, evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘yo te ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno? Yo te bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno? Yo te etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato’ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho tvaṃ, citta, kinti byākareyyāsī”ti?
   “Sace pana maṃ, bhante, evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘yo te ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno. Yo te bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno. Yo te etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato’ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho ahaṃ, bhante, evaṃ byākareyyaṃ– ‘yo me ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho tasmiṃ samaye sacco ahosi, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno. Yo me bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho tasmiṃ samaye sacco bhavissati, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno. Yo me etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato’ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho ahaṃ, bhante, evaṃ byākareyyan”ti.
   439. “Evameva kho, citta, yasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Oḷāriko attapaṭilābho tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Yasmiṃ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti …pe… yasmiṃ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābho tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati.
   440. “Seyyathāpi, citta, gavā khīraṃ, khīramhā dadhi, dadhimhā navanītaṃ, navanītamhā sappi, sappimhā sappimaṇḍo. Yasmiṃ samaye khīraṃ hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye dadhīti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na navanītanti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na sappīti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na sappimaṇḍoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; khīraṃ tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Yasmiṃ samaye dadhi hoti …pe… navanītaṃ hoti… sappi hoti… sappimaṇḍo hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye khīranti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na dadhīti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na navanītanti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na sappīti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; sappimaṇḍo tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Evameva kho, citta, yasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti …pe… yasmiṃ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti …pe… yasmiṃ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṃ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābho tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Imā kho citta, lokasamaññā lokaniruttiyo lokavohārā lokapaññattiyo yāhi tathāgato voharati aparāmasan”ti.
   441. Evaṃ vutte, poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Abhikkantaṃ, bhante, seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya– ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti. Evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gatan”ti.
Cittahatthisāriputta-upasampadā
   442. Citto pana hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “abhikkantaṃ, bhante; abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya– ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti. Evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyaṃ upasampadan”ti.
   443. Alattha kho citto hatthisāriputto bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, alattha upasampadaṃ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā citto hatthisāriputto eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto na cirasseva– yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṃ– brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti– abbhaññāsi. Aññataro kho panāyasmā citto hatthisāriputto arahataṃ ahosīti.
   Poṭṭhapādasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ navamaṃ.