理信與迷信

無論是基督教、大乘佛教、密宗等各家各派都對自己的教義老王賣瓜,自賣自誇,矮化別人,抬高自己。因此曾有人問我,你如何知道你選擇的信仰就一定是正確?這個問題其實遠早在古印度佛陀時代就已有人提出,因為印度時至今日仍是各派宗教信仰雜揉林立,各教派導師莫不對自己的教義充滿自信,甚而貶抑他人。對於教義中的矛盾之處,總是教導信徒只管相信,不要探索天機。但這樣的講法恐怕無法說服理性之輩。

叫人一味的相信,不要懷疑,是沒有道理的。只說一聲「我相信」,不足以代表有了「知」與「見」。猶如學生做數學習題時,若遇到瓶頸,不知該如何繼續演算 下去,自然會生起疑慮與惶惑,此疑不除,就不能進步。解除疑惑的方法很多,但僅憑一句「我相信」,並不能解決問題。強迫自己去相信或接受不瞭解的事物或現象,那叫做政治,或者是宗教狂熱,那絕不是睿智。

在所有宗教的教主中,唯有佛陀不以「非人」自居。也就是說,他公然宣稱自己與大家一樣,是人類,會生老病死,不若其他宗教教主,或以神靈自居,或自詡為神靈的轉世化身,或受聖靈的感招。

「人,應當自己皈依自己,這世上並沒有誰可以真正成為人類皈依的對象。」佛陀曾經如是說過(參見《大般涅盤經》)。換言之,人類是自己的主宰,在人類之上,並沒有什麼神靈或超自然力量可以控制人類的命運。佛陀認為,人類絕對可以依靠自己的努力與才智,從痛苦與煩惱的泥沼中獲得解脫。

本篇是從古老的巴利語經文,經由美國大長老譚尼沙羅尊者譯成英文,是一篇非常珍貴的經文。佛陀在本經中教導我們應秉持獨立的思考態度,不盲從、不依賴、也不迷信權威、傳統、傳說、習慣、主觀或大師的觀點,應憑著良心作理性的判斷,及仔細的求證,追尋真理。

選譯自南傳巴利英譯《卡拉瑪經》

美國舊金山聖地牙哥譚尼沙羅尊者英譯

喬正一中譯於西元2008/6/1

我是這樣聽說的:

    有一次,佛陀帶領著許多比丘一起遊行,來到了古印度拘薩羅國,並進駐該國的卡拉瑪城市中心。城內的人民早已久仰佛陀盛名,便慕名蜂擁造訪佛陀。他們見到了佛陀,向佛陀行過禮後,便恭敬的坐在一旁。

    卡拉瑪人的代表開口問佛陀:各家各派都對自己的教義老王賣瓜,自賣自誇,矮化別人,抬高自己。若跟他們的教義持不一樣的看法,他們就會駁斥、輕蔑、卑視。佛陀啊,我們實在感到很迷惑,我們實在無法分辨這些人當中,誰說的是真話,誰的話是虛妄不實的?]

   「卡拉瑪人,你們會疑惑是應該的,在所疑之處生疑,在有惑之處起惑,都是正常的現象。」佛陀這麼說。

   「卡拉瑪人,你們只要把握一項原則,那就是:不可因為傳說就信以為真;不可因為是古老的傳統就信以為真;不可因為是正在流行的消息就信以為真;不可因為是宗教經典或書本裡的記載就信以為真;不可因為符合羅輯就信以為真;不可以為根據哲理就信以為真;不可因為符合常識或外在的推測就信以為真;不可因為符合自己的預設、見解、或觀念就信以為真;不可因為演說者的權威就信以為真;不可因為『這個沙門是我的導師』就信以為真。」

佛陀接著說:「卡拉瑪人,當你們自己知道:『這些事是不好的,這些事是有過失的,這些事會受智者譴責的,做這些事情會導致後患無窮,當這些事被採用時會帶來傷害及痛苦之時』--你們便應該捨棄或遠離他們。無論在任何時候,當你們很清楚知道這些事情是不善的、是錯誤的、會受智者譴責的、若接受或採取之後會帶來損害、傷害、痛苦和煩惱時,那麼你們便應該捨棄遠離這些事情。」

卡拉瑪人,你們認為人類心中的貪欲、瞋怒、及愚痴,對人是有益的,或是無益的?」佛陀問。

「佛陀,都是無益的。」卡拉瑪人回答。

那麼,卡拉瑪人,如果此人被貪欲、或瞋怒、或愚痴所蒙蔽,因而做出殺人、偷竊、與他人之妻(夫)通姦、及說謊等行徑,你們認為他(她)會不會因此招致長期的痛苦?」

卡拉瑪人回答:「一定會!」

佛陀問:「卡拉瑪人,那麼你們認為以上的行徑是善,或不善?]

是不善的。」

「這些行為是有罪的?或無罪?」

是有罪的。」

「這些行為會不會招致無窮的後患?產生無止盡的痛苦與煩惱?」

「一定會招致無窮的後患,一定會產生無止盡的痛苦與煩惱。」

   佛陀說:「卡拉瑪人,所以我才會這麼說:『不可因為傳說就信以為真;不可因為是古老的傳統就信以為真;不可因為是正在流行的消息就信以為真;不可因為是宗教經典或書本裡的記載就信以為真;不可因為符合羅輯就信以為真;不可以為根據哲理就信以為真;不可因為符合常識或外在的推測就信以為真;不可因為符合自己的預設、見解、或觀念就信以為真;不可因為演說者的權威就信以為真;不可因為『這個沙門是我的導師』就信以為真。』當你們自己知道:『這些事是不好的,這些事是有過失的,這些事會受智者譴責的,做這些事情會導致後患無窮,當這些事被採用時會帶來傷害及痛苦之時』--你們便應該捨棄或遠離他們。無論在任何時候,當你們很清楚知道這些事情是不善的、是錯誤的、會受智者譴責的、若接受或採取之後會帶來損害、傷害、痛苦和煩惱時,那麼你們便應該捨棄遠離這些事情。」

佛陀又問:卡拉瑪人,如果人類心中沒有貪欲、瞋怒、及愚痴,你們覺得對人是有益的,或是無益的?」

「佛陀,都是有益的。」

那麼,卡拉瑪人,如果此人並未被貪欲、或瞋怒、或愚痴所蒙蔽,並沒有做出殺人、偷竊、與他人之妻(夫)通姦、及說謊等行徑,你們認為他(她)會不會因此獲得恆久的平安與快樂?」

卡拉瑪人回答:「一定會!」

佛陀問:「卡拉瑪人,那麼你們認為以上的行徑是善,或不善?]

是善的。」

「這些行為是有罪的?或無罪?」

是無罪的。」

「這些行為會不會受到智者所稱讚?」

「一定會受到智者所稱讚。」

   「卡拉瑪人,同樣的道理,當你們自己知道:『這些事是好的,這些事是沒有過失的,這些事會受智者稱讚的,做這些事情不會導致後患無窮,當這些事被採用時會帶來平安及快樂時』--你們便應該努力奉行。無論在任何時候,當你們很清楚知道這些事情是善的、是正確的、是有益的、會受智者稱讚的、若接受或採取之後會帶來名譽、成功、平安、快樂時,那麼你們便應該努力奉行這些事情。」

   「卡拉瑪人,佛教的聖弟子們就是這樣修行的,他們離貪、離瞋,不愚癡。時時刻刻保持正知、正念,將內心慈愛之念徧滿一方、二、三、四方世界。將內心的悲憫徧滿一方、二、三、四方世界。將不嫉妒的歡喜之情徧滿一方、二、三、四方世界。將謙卑、無私與平等之心徧滿一方、二、三、四方世界。將如是慈、悲、喜、捨等四心橫徧於全世界上下一切之處,甚至整個宇宙,令廣大、無量、無怨、無惱害之心、徧滿而住。」

「卡拉瑪人,我的學生若能做到以上的修行,內心沒有怨憎,沒有貪欲、沒有雜染,清淨聖潔,他(她)在今生中便能獲致四種內心的平安與喜樂:

第一,                 第一,他(她)會這麼想:『我不確定這個世界上到底有沒有輪迴,有沒有因果業報。但萬一這些事情存在,那麼我死後一定會生天,或出生在美好的地方。』這就是他(她)今生的第一種內心的安樂。

第二,                 第二,他(她)會這麼想:『我不確定這個世界上到底有沒有輪迴,有沒有因果業報。就算沒有,那麼虎死留皮,人死留名,至少我可以為自己、家人或親友留下好的名聲』這就是他(她)今生的第二種內心的安樂。

第三,                 第三,他(她)會這麼想:『若作(惡)之人有惡報,那麼我不對任何人懷有惡意,不造惡業,我將來一定不會遇到不幸。』這就是他(她)今生的第三種內心的安樂。

第四,                 第四,他(她)會這麼想:『假設作惡之人沒有惡報,那麼至少我心安理得,無愧於天地,無負於他人』這就是他(她)今生的第四種內心的安樂。」

   卡拉瑪人聽完佛陀的啟示以後,皆茅塞頓開,豁然開朗,內心湧起無法言喻的歡喜,他們齊聲稱讚佛陀:「真是了不起!真是偉大!佛陀的教導實在不可思議,猶如使迷路者找到了正途,在黑暗中嶄露了曙光,在闇室中點燃油燈,令大家看清室內的各種東西,佛陀的教導亦是如此。佛陀啊,我們從今起願皈依佛陀、佛法、皈依比丘僧伽,佛陀啊!請接受我們為忠實的在家弟子。」

 

Kalama Sutta

To the Kalamas

Translated from the Pali by

Thanissaro Bhikkhu

 


I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One, on a wandering tour among the Kosalans with a large community of monks, arrived at Kesaputta, a town of the Kalamas. The Kalamas of Kesaputta heard it said, "Gotama the contemplative — the son of the Sakyans, having gone forth from the Sakyan clan — has arrived at Kesaputta. And of that Master Gotama this fine reputation has spread: 'He is indeed a Blessed One, worthy, & rightly self-awakened, consummate in knowledge & conduct, well-gone, a knower of the cosmos, an unexcelled trainer of those persons ready to be tamed, teacher of human & divine beings, awakened, blessed. He has made known — having realized it through direct knowledge — this world with its devas, maras, & brahmas, its generations with their contemplatives & priests, their rulers & common people; has explained the Dhamma admirable in the beginning, admirable in the middle, admirable in the end; has expounded the holy life both in its particulars & in its essence, entirely perfect, surpassingly pure. It is good to see such a worthy one.'"

So the Kalamas of Kesaputta went to the Blessed One. On arrival, some of them bowed down to him and sat to one side. Some of them exchanged courteous greetings with him and, after an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, sat to one side. Some of them sat to one side having saluted him with their hands palm-to-palm over their hearts. Some of them sat to one side having announced their name & clan. Some of them sat to one side in silence.

As they sat there, the Kalamas of Kesaputta said to the Blessed One, "Lord, there are some priests & contemplatives who come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. And then other priests & contemplatives come to Kesaputta. They expound & glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them, show contempt for them, & disparage them. They leave us absolutely uncertain & in doubt: Which of these venerable priests & contemplatives are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?"

"Of course you are uncertain, Kalamas. Of course you are in doubt. When there are reasons for doubt, uncertainty is born. So in this case, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering' — then you should abandon them.

"What do you think, Kalamas? When greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this greedy person, overcome by greed, his mind possessed by greed, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this aversive person, overcome by aversion, his mind possessed by aversion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"Now, what do you think, Kalamas? When delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For harm, lord."

"And this deluded person, overcome by delusion, his mind possessed by delusion, kills living beings, takes what is not given, goes after another person's wife, tells lies, and induces others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term harm & suffering."

"Yes, lord."

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Unskillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameworthy, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Criticized by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to harm & to suffering, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to harm & to suffering. That is how it appears to us."

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them.

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of greed arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this ungreedy person, not overcome by greed, his mind not possessed by greed, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of aversion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this unaversive person, not overcome by aversion, his mind not possessed by aversion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"What do you think, Kalamas? When lack of delusion arises in a person, does it arise for welfare or for harm?"

"For welfare, lord."

"And this undeluded person, not overcome by delusion, his mind not possessed by delusion, doesn't kill living beings, take what is not given, go after another person's wife, tell lies, or induce others to do likewise, all of which is for long-term welfare & happiness."

"Yes, lord."

"So what do you think, Kalamas: Are these qualities skillful or unskillful?"

"Skillful, lord."

"Blameworthy or blameless?"

"Blameless, lord."

"Criticized by the wise or praised by the wise?"

"Praised by the wise, lord."

"When adopted & carried out, do they lead to welfare & to happiness, or not?"

"When adopted & carried out, they lead to welfare & to happiness. That is how it appears to us."

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness" — then you should enter & remain in them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones — thus devoid of greed, devoid of ill will, undeluded, alert, & resolute — keeps pervading the first direction [the east] — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with good will. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with good will: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with compassion. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with compassion: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with appreciation. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with appreciation: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"He keeps pervading the first direction — as well as the second direction, the third, & the fourth — with an awareness imbued with equanimity. Thus he keeps pervading above, below, & all around, everywhere & in every respect the all-encompassing cosmos with an awareness imbued with equanimity: abundant, expansive, immeasurable, free from hostility, free from ill will.

"Now, Kalamas, one who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease — free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both respects.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now."

"So it is, Blessed One. So it is, O One Well-gone. One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires four assurances in the here-&-now:

"'If there is a world after death, if there is the fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then this is the basis by which, with the break-up of the body, after death, I will reappear in a good destination, the heavenly world.' This is the first assurance he acquires.

"'But if there is no world after death, if there is no fruit of actions rightly & wrongly done, then here in the present life I look after myself with ease — free from hostility, free from ill will, free from trouble.' This is the second assurance he acquires.

"'If evil is done through acting, still I have willed no evil for anyone. Having done no evil action, from where will suffering touch me?' This is the third assurance he acquires.

"'But if no evil is done through acting, then I can assume myself pure in both ways.' This is the fourth assurance he acquires.

"One who is a disciple of the noble ones — his mind thus free from hostility, free from ill will, undefiled, & pure — acquires these four assurances in the here-&-now.

"Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if he were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One — through many lines of reasoning — made the Dhamma clear. We go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of monks. May the Blessed One remember us as lay followers who have gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

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