本經與巴利聖典《中部》第101經《天臂經》的內容完全相同,是一篇「重中之重」的重要經文。經中佛陀提出他剛剛成佛時,曾與裸形外道尼犍教的教徒就「苦行是否可消惡業」的這一個議題展開過辯論。

    就跟苦行是否可以消惡業一樣,對佛教徒來說,同樣一直有一個很重要的問題尚待釐清,那就是:惡業可以靠吃素、念咒、拜懺、或以行善來將功折罪、或任何的宗教儀式來消除嗎?

    在佛教裡,對於業力的看法,認為除非是因緣已成熟並親自承受以後,否則業力是不可能透過任何的方法去消除。因為,此有故彼有,此無故彼無;此生故彼生,此滅故彼滅。

    就以佛陀為例,佛是宇宙中最圓滿的聖者,但他最後一生仍遭遇十件打擊,例如背痛,且這種因宿世惡業所產生的惡果報,直到他般無餘涅槃前仍持續生滅。

    又比如有人一直中傷我們,我們就應該要思惟這絕對不是無因無緣而產生的現象,這有可能是我們今生做人、待人處事上有問題,如果不是今生犯了什麼錯,那就是緣於前生的惡業。但,不管是前世或今生的業力所致,我們可以決定的是我們的心態。我們被人中傷或冤枉時,一定很受傷、很委屈,甚至很生氣,但我們要不要因瞋怒而反擊?要不要以牙還牙去報復?還是運用佛法來消除心中的瞋怒?或利用這個機會來修忍辱波羅蜜?這,就考驗著我們的智慧與修行了。

    如果以「因緣生滅」的角度來思惟,當我們遇到這些打擊時,其實反而應該要高興,因為這代表我們的惡業已成熟了,也意味著它生起的同時亦已滅去,既已滅去便不復再生,除非是自己再造新的惡業,否則想要再找苦報也不可得了。就好比清償積欠的債務,換來無債一身輕,這是多麼快樂的一件事!

    另外一種方法,就是廣修善業功德,勤修慈悲喜捨,這並不是善惡相抵或將功折罪,這有以下幾層意義:

一、以無量的善業沖淡過往的惡業,雖善惡不能相抵,但卻能阻止妨礙較為嚴重的惡業的成長,不讓惡業繼續惡化下去,轉變成重報輕受;

二、甚至使過去的惡業沒有適當的因緣成熟;

三、逢凶化吉、吉人天相,就算惡業成熟遇難時,自有貴人或善神出手相助

四、有雄厚的承載力,即便償還宿世業債,也能還得輕鬆自在沒煩惱,一如《鹽喻經》中國王偷羊的例子。

    當然,最好的方法實在莫過於奉行八正道而般無餘涅槃,屆時一切的苦都將止息,一切的煩惱都將斷除,惡業因無所附麗而失去依憑,永遠無從成熟。

選譯自《中阿含經》第19經之《尼乾經》

喬正一白話譯於西元2016/3/16農曆二月初八之八關齋戒日

  我是這樣聽聞的: 

    這是佛陀於古印度的釋羇瘦這個國家遊方、並暫時住在天邑(臂)城中的事。 

    當時,世尊告訴諸比丘:「這些尼乾教徒都曾堅持這樣的邪見與信仰:『人所受的業報,皆因過去前生宿世所造作的善惡業所致,如果這些過去舊的業能透過苦行的修行來消滅,然後不再造做新的業,則諸業滅盡;諸業一旦都滅盡了,則一切的苦也都滅盡;苦一旦都滅盡了,則得苦邊【解脫涅槃】。』

    於是,我便走到他們的面前問:『你們的教義真的是這樣的看法嗎』?

    他們回答我:『是的,瞿曇!』

    我又問他們:『你們是否有足夠的智慧能回答我以下的問題?「【我】是本來就存在的呢?還是本來不存在的呢?我是本來一開始就作惡的呢?還是本來一開始就不作惡呢?我所受的苦是否都全部滅盡?還是沒有滅盡?如果我所受的苦都已滅盡,那麼在現世這一輩子中,應該就會斷諸不善業,而得眾善之法。」如果你們能回答以上的問題,那麼你們才有資格說上面的那些話。』

    他們回答我:『不能,瞿曇!我們無法回答你以上的問題。』

    我對他們說:『尼乾!既然你們無法回答我的問題,卻又主張上面的見解與信仰, 這樣豈不是很矛盾又危險?

    尼乾!這就好比有一個與敵軍在打仗的人,不幸被敵軍的毒箭給射中了。他的傷口疼痛難忍,不斷地痛苦呻吟。於是他被他的同袍隊友給抬回家,四處找醫生來拔箭療傷。醫生來了以後,便先用鋒利的手術刀將傷口處的皮肉給劃開,但這麼做使他痛苦難耐【因過去沒有麻醉藥】;當皮肉被切開後,就把刺入筋骨的箭頭給拔了出來。在拔箭頭之際,又給傷者帶來極大的疼痛;接著,醫生便在他的傷口上敷了一些消炎的藥,然後再將傷口用細布層層包紮起來,這麼做仍使他痛苦不已。但,在經歷了這麼多痛苦之後,他的傷口已慢慢得以痊癒,他又可以回到戰場去打仗了。

    我們從無始以來,都被各種毒箭所傷,使我們痛苦不堪。如果我們想把這些毒箭給徹底拔除,就需要良醫來幫助我們拔去毒箭。在整個手術的過程中,我們必須要忍受手術所帶來的巨痛。但,這些痛苦都是暫時的疼痛,痊癒後會帶給我們永恆的康寧;但如果我們不尋求良醫來醫治,那麼我們就只有永遠忍受痛苦的折磨。

    你們所謂以「苦行來消業」,就好像身中了毒箭卻沒有良醫,誤信偏方,不能對症下藥,只會增加痛苦,惡化疾病。

    如果你們真的具有有各種清淨的智慧,能洞悉透徹一切的宿業因果關係,那麼你們才有資格說:我們所受的一切業報,都是由於宿業的緣故;如果透過修習苦行,就可以將舊業給消除,然後就可以滅一切的苦而解脫。

    你們真的有這種能洞悉透徹一切宿業因果關係的智慧嗎?』

    當我這麼反問他們的時候,那些尼乾子們便沉默不語,無以言對。

    接著,我又問他們:『如果你們修習最高的苦行,斷最重的苦,那麼,會不會產生極大的痛苦呢?』

    他們回答:『會!』

    我問:『如果你們修行中等的苦行,斷中等的苦,那麼,會不會產生中等的痛苦呢?』

    他們回答:『會!』

    我問:『如果你們修習普通的苦行,斷普通的苦,那麼,會不會產生普通的痛苦呢?』

   他們回答:『會!』

    以上,尼乾們都作了肯定的回答。

    我對他們說:『如果上斷、上苦行,就會使身體受到上苦的折磨;如果中斷、中苦行,就會使身體受到中苦的折磨;如果下斷、下苦行,一樣會使身體受到下苦的折磨。不管你們是修習上苦行,還是修習下苦行,在身體上都會受到痛苦的折磨。如此一來,你們今生今世受到各種無謂的苦楚,都是不可避免的了。這樣不但不能滅苦,反而在今生白白受了這麼多無謂的折磨,豈不矛盾顛倒?但你們被愚癡所覆蓋及纏縛,還天真地以為透過極端的自我折磨苦修,便能將宿世所造的業都給滅除,豈不可悲可歎?』

  那些尼乾子們聽了我的分析,都無言以對,且沉默不語。

    我又問尼乾子們:『尼乾們!如果有能夠享受快樂的果報之業,這些快樂的業報是否可以因為我們通過修習苦行,從而將它轉化變質為苦報嗎?——【佛陀的意思是,業分為苦、樂、不苦不樂三種,如果我們原本具備了一些可以用來享受快樂的善業,現在我們卻不願享受快樂,而是透過苦行,把這些快樂之業全轉變成痛苦的果報,是否可以做得到呢?比如說我們上輩子做了善事功德,這輩子生到了皇家作為王子,當王子本來應該很快樂;然而我們現在卻不願想享受這些快樂,於是拼命去修苦行,將這些快樂轉化 變質為痛苦惡報。】

   尼乾子們作了否定的回答。

    我又繼續問諸尼乾:『諸尼乾!如果我們現在有苦業報,我們在現世今生裡,能否通過苦行的修行,將這些苦業報全轉化為樂報呢?』

    他們回答:『不能!』

    『如果我們在現世今生裡會受到某些果報,這些業是否可以由我們修習苦行,將這些現在即將要受報的業,全部延遲到來生後世才去報應承受呢?』

    『不能!』

    『如果我們有一些未來下一世才受到果報的業,這些來世才受到報應的業是否可以由我們修行苦行,全提前轉為現世的業報?』

    『不能!』

    『如果我們有一些因緣尚未成熟或不具足(不熟報業)的業報,能否能通過苦行,使它們全轉變為因緣具足(熟報業)的果報嗎?』

    『不能!』

    『如果我們有一些即將成熟的惡報惡業,是否可以通過苦行,使它們全轉變為不成熟的惡業呢?』

    『不能!』

    『諸尼乾們!既然樂報的善業,不可能因苦行而轉作苦報;苦報的惡業,不可能因苦行轉作樂報;應當現世今生承受的業報,不可能因苦行轉作延遲到來生才受的果報;應當來生後世承受的果報,不可能因苦行提前轉作現世報;不成熟的業,不可能因苦行而轉作提前成熟的果報;即將或已成熟的果報業,不可能因苦行而轉作不成熟的果報。

    既然如此,那麼你們所修的這些苦行,又有什麼意義呢?』 

    這些尼乾便對我說:『瞿曇!我們有一位很尊敬的導師,他的名字叫親子尼乾子。他曾經這樣教導我們:「弟子們,你們如果在過去宿世裡曾經作過惡業的話,不用擔心。為什麼呢?因為我有辦法讓你們把這些宿世的惡業都消除掉。如何消除呢?

第一、  要按照我所說的方法去修苦行;

第二、  就是從現在開始,你們要把身口意都要給防護好,不要再去造各種惡業。

    如果你們能按照我教你們的方法去修行,那麼我可以保證你們都不會受到宿世惡業的果報!」

    我聽了以後便問這些尼乾:『你們就真的對你們的老師所說的話一點都不懷疑嗎?』

    他們回答我:『瞿曇!我們都相信尊師親子尼乾,且深信不疑。』

    我對他們說:『諸位!有五種法,在現世之中會產生兩種果報【正反兩方面的果報,即樂報與苦報】。這五法分別是:信【相信】、樂【各自的偏好】、聞【印度古代大師的教法都是口傳,不立文字,因而學生學習就是靠聽聞老師說的法】、念【理性的慎思明辨及思惟】、善見觀【思惟後便吸收,消化成為自己的思想、信仰、觀念】。如果有人一向說的都是些虛妄之語,那麼,這些妄語是否值得可信、可樂、可聞、可念以及可見善觀?』

    那些尼乾子們便回答說:『瞿曇,就算我們的導師說的都是虛妄之語,我們對他依然忠貞,對他的教義也是可信、可樂、可聞、可念和可見善觀的。』

    這些尼乾子們的回答,凸顯了他們已經到了盲目崇拜與狂熱的地步,相當的危險,其結果就是應當會受到五種訶責。受到此五種訶責的人,便會受到人們的憎惡。哪五種訶責(五種憎惡)呢?即宿世所作的惡業、惡合會、惡為命、惡見、惡尊佑。分別說明如下:

    如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是由於各自的宿業而來。如果這種觀點成立,那麼這些尼乾子們今天會以極端折磨自己的方式來修苦行,今生受到這麼悽慘的身心折磨,他們在宿世裡不知道做了多少壞事了。這就是尼乾的第一種自我矛盾與可憎惡之處;

    如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是由於因緣聚合而來。如此一來,則那些尼乾們今生自我修苦行折磨所受的痛苦,就都是諸惡因緣所聚合而來的。這就是尼乾的第二種自我矛盾與可憎惡之處;

  如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是由於我們命中所註定的。如果此種觀點成立,那麼這些尼乾子們今生如此自我折磨就是命中註定活該受罪了。這就是尼乾的第三種自我矛盾與可憎惡之處;

    如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是由於《知見》而來。如果此種觀點成立,那麼這些尼乾們今天如此折磨自己,就是他們與生俱來的惡邪見導致自我折磨受苦了。這就是尼乾的第四種自我矛盾與可憎惡之處;

    如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是經過尊佑(自在天、上帝)的創造而來。如果此種觀點成立,那麼這些尼乾子今天如此自我折磨而承受如此痛苦,他們所尊崇的上帝就十分邪惡了,因為上帝竟然 會創造讓尼乾子受這麼多折磨的苦。這就是尼乾的第五種自我矛盾與可憎惡之處;

    由於尼乾子們具備了上述的五種自我矛盾與憎惡之處,他們才會去苦修,現世才會受到這些自我折磨的痛苦。因此,尼乾子本身也是十分可憎的。

  我為你們所說的法,都是自知、自覺的法,若沙門、梵志,若天、魔、梵及其餘一切世間的人類皆無能伏,皆無能穢,皆無能制。

    為什麼我會這麼說呢?

    如果有比丘,能夠捨棄身、口、意等三者的不善之業,而修習三善業的話,那麼他便可以自覺自知沒有未來之苦。因為現在我們只修善業,而棄捨惡業,如此一來,痛苦失去了源頭【苦因】,未來又哪還有苦患的蹤影呢?

    那時,我們只會享受快樂,而不會再生苦患。

    如果有比丘能夠努力修行,斷除苦行,斬斷貪欲,或者處於苦的因緣中而精進觀察修行,由於精進觀察修行而得離除諸欲,那麼各種苦患就會斷除清淨。

    如果一個比丘從不約束自己的行為,致使身口意三業都處於散漫的狀態,那麼就會生起不善之法,各種善法就會消失;如果比丘能夠做到自斷其苦,則不善之法就會斷滅,此時善法自然也會跟著生起。

    如果我們的諸業之中,只有善法生起,從此將各種不善法斷除清淨,那麼,就不存在什麼斷苦的問題,因為我們已經無苦可斷。

    比丘!因為我們過去所做的都是對的善因,他該修的功課都已完成【所做已辦】,再去講什麼斷苦,就沒有道理了。

    比丘!就好比造箭的工匠師傅每打造完一支利箭,都會使用一種專門檢驗箭杆是否正直的器具,這種器具就叫作《檢》。如果弓箭有彎曲的地方,箭工師傅們就會用《檢》將箭杆給矯正匡直;如果箭杆本身又直又正,那就不用再拿《檢》去檢驗了;如果將本來就正直的箭杆還拿去匡正,根本是多此一舉的事。佛陀舉這個譬喻的意思是:比丘原本就遠離了苦患,可現在卻讓比丘去斷除苦患,這不是徒勞無益的事情嗎?

  同樣的道理,當過去所做的都是對的善因,他該修的功課都已完成【所做已辦】,再去討論他有沒有苦,根本是沒有意義的事。

    比丘!就好比有人非常喜歡愛戀著某一個女人,但這個女人卻沒有這麼愛這個男人,反而玩弄他的感情,對這個男人三心二意,不時與別的男人勾搭曖昧,甚至偷來暗去私通,發生性關係。那麼此時,這個男人會有什麼樣的感受呢?他的心是不是充斥著一種被拋棄的羞辱感?一種自尊被踐踏玩弄的惱怒感?一種求而不得的失落感?一種難以名狀的憂苦感?」

    比丘們回答:「沒錯,世尊!這個男人肯定充斥著一種被拋棄的羞辱感,一種自尊被踐踏玩弄的惱怒感,一種求而不得的失落感,一種難以名狀的憂苦感。因為這個男人是這麼地愛這個女人。」

    「比丘!假設這個男人後來想通了,他告訴自己:『我如此至誠地愛護對待這個女人,可是這個女人卻對我虛情假意、逢場作戲,私下卻和別人上床,看來我是自作多情了!天涯何處無芳草,我又何必一廂情願單戀一枝花呢?』

    於是,這個男人拿得起、放得下,快刀斬亂麻斬斷情絲,從此不和那個女人來往見面,徹底遠離她,心裡面再也不去想那個女人。

    如此一來,這個男人的心裡還會有煩惱嗎?自然是沒有了。大家請試想一下,如果這個男人不約束調整自己,仍舊依戀著那個三心二意的女人的話,那麼就很難斷除各種情感煩惱的糾纏,這樣下去,只會自我折磨,一切的善法都將無從生起。因為這個男人已徹底放下對那個女人的眷戀執著,他已走出情感傷痛的陰影,如果叫他再去斷苦,苦也找不到、且不可得了。

    當徹底瞭解了導致諸苦的苦因【苦集】之後,比丘就會去斷除貪欲【苦集】,於是獨自一個人走到樹下或者其他的僻靜之處,結跏趺坐,修止與觀,最後將貪欲、瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔、疑惑等五蓋悉數除滅,然後去除心穢和使智慧羸弱等各種結使,便可達到初禪的境地。

    繼而,他通過不斷地修習,便會更上一層樓達到二禪…..乃至四禪

    當他得如是禪定,因心清淨,無穢無煩,柔軟善住,得不動心,趣向漏盡智通,而自知自證:此苦如真,知此是苦集、知此苦應滅、知此苦滅道如真;亦知此煩惱如真,知此煩惱是集、知此煩惱應滅、知此是滅除煩惱之道。

    當此人已如是知、如是見,則欲漏煩惱心便解脫,有漏、無明漏心便解脫。解脫後,便知解脫成就【解脫知見成就】:我這一生已是歷劫生死的最後一站了,我已成就了最高、最圓滿的梵行,我該修的功課都已完成,這一世的餘蘊消滅後就不再有下一生了。

    如來因成就了如是正心解脫,便得五種值得受到稱讚的榮譽,如法無諍,可愛可敬,是哪五種榮譽呢?

  1、妙業——如果眾生所受的苦樂,都是緣於宿世所造之業的話,那麼如來自無始宿世以來,所造之業都是不可思議、無以倫比之波羅蜜善業;因為這些無量圓滿的波羅蜜,如來已徹底斷除了一切的煩惱,寂靜止息而得樂覺,這就是如來應得的第一種值得受到稱讚的榮譽;

  2、妙合會——如果眾生所受的苦與樂,都是源於因緣聚集的話,那麼,如來便是一種不可思議的因緣聚合;因為這些不可思議的因緣,如來徹底斷除了一切的煩惱,寂靜止息而得樂覺,這就是如來應得的第二種值得受到稱讚的榮譽;

  3、妙命——如果眾生所受的苦樂,都是命中註定的話,那麼如來則是從無始以來,便是第一等的無上好命;因為第一等無上的好命,如來徹底斷除了一切的煩惱,寂靜止息而得樂覺,這就是如來應得的第一種值得受到稱讚的榮譽;

  4、妙見——如果眾生所受的苦樂,都是由於知見所造成的話,那麼如來的知見不可思議;因為如來不可思議的知見,如來徹底斷除了一切的煩惱,寂靜止息而得樂覺,這就是如來應得的第四種值得受到稱讚的榮譽;

    5、尊祐造——如果說眾生所受的苦樂都是上帝的安排,那麼如來比上帝還要偉大,因為,如來今天能安享聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,這已超出了上帝的能力,這就是如來應得的第五種值得受到稱讚的榮譽;

    以上,就是如來的本妙業、妙合會、妙為命、妙見、妙尊祐,為妙尊祐所造,因這五種值得受到稱讚的榮譽,如來於今天能安享聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺。 

    有五種因緣,令心產生憂苦,是哪五種?分別是:淫欲纏者,因淫欲纏繞身心之故,心生憂苦;同理,瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔、疑惑纏者,都會令心產生憂苦。以上:就是五種令心產生憂苦的因緣。 

    有五種能令心滅除憂苦的因緣,是哪五種呢?若淫欲纏者,因淫欲纏故,心產生憂苦,滅除淫欲纏後,憂苦便滅,於現世今生中而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見。同理,瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔,若疑惑纏者,因疑惑纏故,心生憂苦,除疑惑纏已,憂苦便滅,於現世今生中而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見。以上:就是五種能令心滅憂苦的因緣。 

    還有其他能令現世今生得究竟、無煩無熱、常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見的修行方法。那是什麼呢?就是:八支聖道,分別是:正見……乃至正定。」 

    當佛陀說完本經後,諸比丘聞佛所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

中阿含19/尼乾經(業相應品)

  我聞如是: 
  一時,佛遊釋羇瘦,在天邑中。 
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘: 
  「諸尼乾等如是見、如是說,謂:『人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊。』我便往彼,到已,即問:『尼乾!汝等實如是見、如是說,謂:「人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊耶?」』彼答我言:『如是,瞿曇!』我復問彼尼乾:『汝等自有淨智:「我為本有、我為本無,我為本作惡、為不作惡,我為爾所苦盡、為爾所苦不盡,若盡已,便得盡,即於現世斷諸不善,得眾善法,修習作證。」耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』 
  我復語彼尼乾:『汝等自無淨智:「我為本有、我為本無,我為本作惡、為不作惡,我為爾所苦盡、為爾所苦不盡,若盡已,便得盡,即於現世斷諸不善,得眾善法,修習作證。」而作是說,謂:「人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊。」尼乾!若汝等自有淨智:「我為本有、我為本無,我為本作惡、為不作惡,我為爾所苦盡、為爾所苦不盡,若盡已,便得盡,即於現世斷諸不善,得眾善法,修習作證。」尼乾!汝等可得作是說,謂:「人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊。」 
  尼乾!猶如有人身被毒箭,因被毒箭則生極苦。彼為親屬憐念愍傷,欲饒益安隱故,即呼拔箭金醫。箭金醫來,便以利刀而為開瘡,因開瘡時,復生極苦。既開瘡已,而求箭金,求箭金時,復生極苦。求得金已,即便拔出,因拔出時,復生極苦。拔金出已,{}[]瘡纏裹,因裹瘡時,復生極苦。彼於拔箭金後,得力無患,不壞諸根,平復如故。尼乾!彼人自有淨智,便作是念:「我本被毒箭,因被毒箭則生極苦。我諸親屬見憐念愍傷,欲饒益安隱我故,即呼拔箭金醫。箭金醫來,便以利刀為我開瘡,因開瘡時,復生極苦。既開瘡已,而求箭金,求箭金時,復生極苦。求得金已,即便拔出,因拔出時,復生極苦。拔金出已,{}[]瘡纏裹,因裹瘡時,復生極苦。我於拔箭金後,得力無患,不壞諸根,平復如故。」如是,尼乾!若汝等自有淨智:「我為本有、我為本無,我為本作惡、為不作惡,我為爾所苦盡、為爾所苦不盡,若盡已,便得盡,即於現世斷諸不善,得眾善法,修習作證。」尼乾!汝等可得作是說,謂:「人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊。」』我問如是,不見諸尼乾能答我言:『瞿曇!如是、不如是。』 
  復次,我問諸尼乾曰:『若諸尼乾有上斷、上苦行,爾時,諸尼乾生上苦耶?』彼答我言:『如是,瞿曇!』『若有中斷、中苦行,爾時,諸尼乾生中苦耶?』彼答我言:『如是,瞿曇!』『若有下斷、下苦行,爾時,諸尼乾生下苦耶?』彼答我言:『如是,瞿曇!』『是為諸尼乾有上斷、上苦行,爾時,諸尼乾則生上苦;有中斷、中苦行,爾時,諸尼乾則生中苦;有下斷、下苦行,爾時,諸尼乾則生下苦。若使諸尼乾有上斷、上苦行,爾時,諸尼乾止息上苦;有中斷、中苦行,爾時,諸尼乾止息中苦;有下斷、下苦行,爾時,諸尼乾止息下苦,若如是作、不如是作,止息極苦、甚重苦者,當知:諸尼乾即於現世作苦。但諸尼乾為癡所覆,為癡所纏而作是說,謂:「人所受,皆因本作,若其故業因苦行滅,不造新者,則諸業盡;諸業盡已,則得苦盡;得苦盡已,則得苦邊。」』我問如是,不見諸尼乾能答我言:『瞿曇!如是,不如是。』 
  復次,我問諸尼乾曰:『諸尼乾!若有樂報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作苦報耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!若有苦報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作樂報耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!若有現法報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作後生報耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!若有後生報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作現法報耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!若有不熟報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作熟報耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!若有熟報業,彼業寧可因斷、因苦行轉作異耶?』彼答我言:『不也,瞿曇!』『諸尼乾!是為:樂報業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作苦報。諸尼乾!苦報業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作樂報。諸尼乾!現法報業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作後生報。諸尼乾!後生報業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作現法報。諸尼乾!不熟業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作熟報。諸尼乾!熟報業,彼業不可因斷、因苦行轉作異者。以是故,諸尼乾!虛妄方便,空斷無獲。』 
  彼諸尼乾便報我言:『瞿曇!我有尊師,名親子尼乾,作如是說:「諸尼乾!汝等若本作惡業,彼業皆可因此苦行而得滅盡。若今護身、口、意,因此不復更作惡業也。」』我復問彼諸尼乾曰:『汝等信尊師親子尼乾,不疑惑耶?』彼答我言:『瞿曇!我信尊師親子尼乾,無有疑惑。』我復語彼諸尼乾曰:『有五種法現世二報:信、樂、聞、念、見善觀。諸尼乾!人自有虛妄言是可信、可樂、可聞、可念、可見善觀耶?』彼答我言:『如是,瞿曇!』我復語彼諸尼乾曰:『是虛妄言何可信?何可樂?何可聞?何可念?何可善觀?謂:人自有虛妄言有信、有樂、有聞、有念、有善觀。』 
  若諸尼乾作是說者,於如法中得五詰責,為可憎惡,云何為五? 
  今此眾生所受苦樂皆因本作,若爾者,諸尼乾等本作惡業,所以者何?因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:尼乾第一可憎惡。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因合會,若爾者,諸尼乾等本惡合會,所以者何?因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:尼乾第二可憎惡。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因為命,若爾者,諸尼{}[]等本惡為命,所以者何?因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:尼乾第三可憎惡。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因見也,若爾者,諸尼乾等本有惡見,所以者何?因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:尼乾第四可憎惡。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因尊祐造,若爾者,諸尼乾等本惡尊祐,所以者何?因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:尼乾第五可憎惡。 
  若諸尼乾因本所作惡業、惡合會、惡為命、惡見、惡尊祐,為惡尊祐所造,因彼故,諸尼乾於今受極重苦,是謂:因彼事故,諸尼乾等為可憎惡。 
  我所自知、自覺法為汝說者,若沙門、梵志,若天、魔、梵及餘世間皆無能伏,皆無能穢,皆無能制。云何我所自知、自覺法為汝說者,非為沙門、梵志,若天、魔、梵及餘世間所能伏、所能穢、所能制?若有比丘捨身不善業,修身善業;捨口、意不善業,修口、意善業,彼於未來苦,便自知我無未來苦,如法得樂而不棄捨。彼或欲斷苦因,行欲,或欲斷苦因,行捨欲。彼若欲斷苦因,行欲者,即修其行欲,已斷者,苦便得盡。彼若欲斷苦因,行捨欲者,即修其行捨欲,已斷者,苦便得盡。若彼比丘便作是念:『隨所為、隨所行,不善法生而善法滅;若自斷苦,不善法滅而善法生,我今寧可自斷其苦。』便自斷苦。自斷苦已,不善法滅而善法生,不復斷苦,所以者何?比丘!本所為者,其義已成,若復斷苦,是處不然。 
  比丘!猶如箭工用檢撓箭,其箭已直,不復用檢,所以者何?彼人本所為者,其事已成,若復用檢,是處不然。如是,比丘便作是念:『隨所為、隨所行,不善法生而善法滅;若自斷苦,不善法滅而善法生,我今寧可自斷其苦。』便自斷苦。自斷苦已,不善法滅而善法生,不復斷苦,所以者何?本所為者,其義已成,若復斷苦,是處不然。 
  比丘!猶如有人愛念、染著、敬待彼女,然,彼女人更與他語,共相問訊,往來止宿,其人因是身心生苦惱,極憂慼耶?」 
  比丘答曰:「如是,世尊!」 
  「所以者何?其人於女愛念、染著,極相敬待,而彼女人更與他語,共相問訊,往來止宿,其人身心何得不生苦惱憂慼?比丘!若使其人而作是念:『我唐愛念、敬待彼女,然,彼女人更與他語,共相問訊,往來止宿,我今寧可因自苦自憂故,斷為彼女愛念、染著耶?』其人於後因自苦自憂故,便斷為彼女愛念、染著。若彼女人故與他語,共相問訊,往來止宿,其人於後身心寧當復生苦惱,極憂慼耶?」 
  比丘答曰:「不也,世尊!」 
  「所以者何?其人於女無復愛念、染著之情。若彼女人故與他語,共相問訊,往來止宿,若使其人因此身心復生苦惱極憂慼者,是處不然。如是,比丘便作是念:『隨所為、隨所行,不善法生而善法滅;若自斷其苦,不善法滅而善法生,我今寧可自斷其苦。』便自斷苦。自斷苦已,不善法滅而善法生,不復斷苦,所以者何?本所為者,其義已成,若復斷苦,是處不然。 
  彼復作是念:『若有所因,斷其苦者,我便已斷,然,我於欲猶故未斷,我今寧可求斷於欲。』便求斷欲。彼為斷欲故,獨住遠離,在無事處,或至樹下空安靜處,山巖石室、露地穰積,或至林中,或在塚間。彼已在無事處,或至樹下空安靜處,敷尼師檀,結{}[]趺坐,正身正願,反念不向,斷除貪伺,心無有諍,見他財物諸生活具不起貪伺,欲令我得,彼於貪伺淨除其心。如是,瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔,斷疑、度惑,於諸善法無有猶豫,彼於疑惑淨除其心。 
  彼已斷此五蓋:心穢、慧羸,離欲、離惡不善之法,……至得第四禪成就遊。彼得如是定,心清淨,無穢無煩,柔軟善住,得不動心,趣向漏盡智通作證:彼便知此苦如真,知此苦{}[]、知此苦滅、知此苦滅道如真,亦知此漏如真,知此漏習()、知此漏滅、知此漏滅道如真。彼如是知、如是見已,則欲漏心解脫,有漏、無明漏心解脫。解脫已,便知解脫:生已盡,梵行已立,所作已{}[],不更受有,知如真。
  如來如是正心解脫,得五稱譽,如法無諍,可愛可敬,云何為五? 
  彼眾生者,所受苦樂皆因本作,若爾者,如來本有妙業,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,是謂:如來得第一稱譽。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因合會,若爾者,如來本妙合會,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,是謂:如來得第二稱譽。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因為命,若爾者,如來本妙為命,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,是謂:如來得第三稱譽。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因見也,若爾者,如來本妙見,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,是謂:如來得第四稱譽。 
  復次,眾生所受苦樂皆因尊祐造,若爾者,如來本妙尊祐,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺,是謂:如來得第五稱譽。 
  是為:如來本妙業、妙合會、妙為命、妙見、妙尊祐,為妙尊祐所造,因彼故,如來於今聖無漏樂,寂靜止息而得樂覺。以此事故,如來於今得五稱譽。 
  有五因緣,心生憂苦,云何為五?淫欲纏者,因淫欲纏故,心生憂苦,如是,瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔、疑惑纏者,因疑惑纏故,心生憂苦,是謂:五因緣,心生憂苦。 
  有五因緣,心滅憂苦,云何為五?若淫欲纏者,因淫欲纏故,心生憂苦,除淫欲纏已,憂苦便滅。因淫欲纏,心生憂苦,於現法中而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見。如是,瞋恚、睡眠、掉悔,若疑惑纏者,因疑惑纏故,心生憂苦,除疑惑纏已,憂苦便滅。因疑惑纏,心生憂苦,於現法中而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見,是謂:五因緣,心滅憂苦。 
  復次,更有現法而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見。云何更有現法而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見?謂:八支聖道:正見……乃至正定,是為八。是謂:更有現法而得究竟,無煩無熱,常住不變,是聖所知、聖所見。」 
  佛說如是,彼諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。 

巴利語經文

MN.101/ 2. Devadahasuttaṃ 
   1. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sakkesuviharati devadahaṃ nāma sakyānaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino - ‘yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. Evaṃ vādino, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā. 
   “Evaṃ vādāhaṃ, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhe, upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi - ‘saccaṃ kira tumhe āvuso, nigaṇṭhā, evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino - ‘yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti? Te ca me, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā, evaṃ puṭṭhā ‘āmā’ti paṭijānanti.” 
   “tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadāmi– ‘kiṃ pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jānātha– ahuvamheva mayaṃ pubbe, na nāhuvamhā’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   “‘Kiṃ pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jānātha– akaramheva mayaṃ pubbe pāpakammaṃ, na nākaramhā’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   “‘Kiṃ pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jānātha– evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā pāpakammaṃ akaramhā’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   “‘Kiṃ pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jānātha– ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ, ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjīretabbaṃ, ettakamhi vā dukkhe nijjiṇṇe sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   “‘Kiṃ pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jānātha– diṭṭheva dhamme akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   2. “Iti kira tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, na jānātha– ahuvamheva mayaṃ pubbe, na nāhuvamhāti na jānātha– akaramheva mayaṃ pubbe pāpakammaṃ, na nākaramhāti, na jānātha– evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā pāpakammaṃ akaramhāti, na jānātha– ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ, ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjīretabbaṃ, ettakamhi vā dukkhe nijjiṇṇe sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatīti, na jānātha– diṭṭheva dhamme akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadaṃ; evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ na kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. 
   “Sace pana tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, jāneyyātha– ahuvamheva mayaṃ pubbe, na nāhuvamhāti, jāneyyātha– akaramheva mayaṃ pubbe pāpakammaṃ, na nākaramhāti, jāneyyātha– evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā pāpakammaṃ akaramhāti, jāneyyātha– ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ, ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjīretabbaṃ, ettakamhi vā dukkhe nijjiṇṇe sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatīti, jāneyyātha– diṭṭheva dhamme akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadaṃ; evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. 
   3. “Seyyathāpi, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, puriso sallena viddho assa savisena gāḷhūpalepanena; so sallassapi vedhanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyeyya. Tassa mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā bhisakkaṃ sallakattaṃ upaṭṭhāpeyyuṃ. Tassa so bhisakko sallakatto satthena vaṇamukhaṃ parikanteyya; so satthenapi vaṇamukhassa parikantanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyeyya. Tassa so bhisakko sallakatto esaniyā sallaṃ eseyya; so esaniyāpi sallassa esanāhetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyeyya Tassa so bhisakko sallakatto sallaṃ abbuheyya; so sallassapi abbuhanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyeyya. Tassa so bhisakko sallakatto agadaṅgāraṃ vaṇamukhe odaheyya; so agadaṅgārassapi vaṇamukhe odahanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyeyya. So aparena samayena rūḷhena vaṇena sañchavinā arogo assa sukhī serī sayaṃvasī yena kāmaṅgamo. Tassa evamassa– ahaṃ kho pubbe sallena viddho ahosiṃ savisena gāḷhūpalepanena. Sohaṃ sallassapi vedhanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyiṃ. Tassa me mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā bhisakkaṃ sallakattaṃ upaṭṭhapesuṃ. Tassa me so bhisakko sallakatto satthena vaṇamukhaṃ parikanti; sohaṃ satthenapi vaṇamukhassa parikantanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyiṃ. Tassa me so bhisakko sallakatto esaniyā sallaṃ esi; so ahaṃ esaniyāpi sallassa esanāhetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyiṃ. Tassa me so bhisakko sallakatto sallaṃ abbuhi; sohaṃ sallassapi abbuhanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyiṃ. Tassa me so bhisakko sallakatto agadaṅgāraṃ vaṇamukhe odahi; sohaṃ agadaṅgārassapi vaṇamukhe odahanahetu dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyiṃ. Somhi etarahi rūḷhena vaṇena sañchavinā arogo sukhī serī sayaṃvasī yena kāmaṅgamo”ti. 
   “Evameva kho, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, sace tumhe jāneyyātha– ahuvamheva mayaṃ pubbe, na nāhuvamhāti, jāneyyātha– akaramheva mayaṃ pubbe pāpakammaṃ, na nākaramhāti, jāneyyātha– evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā pāpakammaṃ akaramhāti, jāneyyātha– ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ, ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjīretabbaṃ, ettakamhi vā dukkhe nijjiṇṇe sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatīti, jāneyyātha– diṭṭheva dhamme akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadaṃ; evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. 
   “Yasmā ca kho tumhe, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, na jānātha– ahuvamheva mayaṃ pubbe, na nāhuvamhāti, na jānātha– akaramheva mayaṃ pubbe pāpakammaṃ, na nākaramhāti, na jānātha– evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā pāpakammaṃ akaramhāti, na jānātha– ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ, ettakaṃ vā dukkhaṃ nijjīretabbaṃ, ettakamhi vā dukkhe nijjiṇṇe sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatīti, na jānātha– diṭṭheva dhamme akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānaṃ, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadaṃ; tasmā āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ na kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. 
   4. “Evaṃ vutte, bhikkhave, te nigaṇṭhā maṃ etadavocuṃ– ‘nigaṇṭho āvuso, nāṭaputto sabbaññū sabbadassāvī, aparisesaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ paṭijānāti Carato ca me tiṭṭhato ca suttassa ca jāgarassa ca satataṃ samitaṃ ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitan’ti. So evamāha– ‘atthi kho vo, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, pubbeva pāpakammaṃ kataṃ, taṃ imāya kaṭukāya dukkarakārikāya nijjīretha, yaṃ panettha etarahi kāyena saṃvutā vācāya saṃvutā manasā saṃvutā taṃ āyatiṃ pāpakammassa akaraṇaṃ. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī’ti. Tañca panamhākaṃ ruccati ceva khamati ca, tena camhā attamanā”ti. 
   5. “Evaṃ vutte ahaṃ, bhikkhave, te nigaṇṭhe etadavocaṃ– ‘pañca kho ime, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, dhammā diṭṭheva dhamme dvidhāvipākā. Katame pañca? Saddhā, ruci, anussavo, ākāraparivitakko, diṭṭhinijjhānakkhanti– ime kho, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, pañca dhammā diṭṭheva dhamme dvidhāvipākā. Tatrāyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ kā atītaṃse satthari saddhā, kā ruci, ko anussavo, ko ākāraparivitakko, kā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantī’ti. Evaṃvādī kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhesu na kañci sahadhammikaṃ vādapaṭihāraṃ samanupassāmi. 
   “Puna caparāhaṃ, bhikkhave, te nigaṇṭhe evaṃ vadāmi– ‘taṃ kiṃ maññatha, āvuso nigaṇṭhā. Yasmiṃ vo samaye tibbo upakkamo hoti tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; yasmiṃ pana vo samaye na tibbo upakkamo hoti na tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, na tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyethā’ti? ‘Yasmiṃ no, āvuso gotama, samaye tibbo upakkamo hoti tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyāma; yasmiṃ pana no samaye na tibbo upakkamo hoti na tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, na tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyāmā’”ti. 
   6. “Iti kira, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, yasmiṃ vo samaye tibbo upakkamo hoti tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; yasmiṃ pana vo samaye na tibbo upakkamo hoti na tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, na tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha. Evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ na kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatīti. Sace, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, yasmiṃ vo samaye tibbo upakkamo hoti tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, na tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; yasmiṃ pana vo samaye na tibbo upakkamo hoti na tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ kallamassa veyyākaraṇāya– yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo; vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī”ti. 
   “‘Yasmā ca kho, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, yasmiṃ vo samaye tibbo upakkamo hoti tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; yasmiṃ pana vo samaye na tibbo upakkamo hoti na tibbaṃ padhānaṃ, na tibbā tasmiṃ samaye opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyetha; te tumhe sāmaṃyeva opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vedayamānā avijjā aññāṇā sammohā vipaccetha yaṃ kiñcāyaṃ purisapuggalo paṭisaṃvedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā, sabbaṃ taṃ pubbekatahetu. Iti purāṇānaṃ kammānaṃ tapasā byantībhāvā, navānaṃ kammānaṃ akaraṇā, āyatiṃ anavassavo; āyatiṃ anavassavā kammakkhayo; kammakkhayā dukkhakkhayo; dukkhakkhayā vedanākkhayo vedanākkhayā sabbaṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ bhavissatī’ti. Evaṃvādīpi kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhesu na kañci sahadhammikaṃ vādapaṭihāraṃ samanupassāmi. 
   7. “Puna caparāhaṃ, bhikkhave, te nigaṇṭhe evaṃ vadāmi– ‘taṃ kiṃ maññathāvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā samparāyavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ samparāyavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Taṃ kiṃ maññathāvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ sukhavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā dukkhavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ dukkhavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā sukhavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Taṃ kiṃ maññathāvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ paripakkavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā aparipakkavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ aparipakkavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā paripakkavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Taṃ kiṃ maññathāvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ bahuvedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā appavedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ appavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā bahuvedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Taṃ kiṃ maññathāvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ savedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā avedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. ‘Yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ avedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā savedanīyaṃ hotūti labbhametan’ti? ‘No hidaṃ, āvuso’. 
   8. “Iti kira, āvuso nigaṇṭhā, yamidaṃ kammaṃ diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā samparāyavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yaṃ panidaṃ kammaṃ samparāyavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā diṭṭhadhammavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ sukhavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā dukkhavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ dukkhavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā sukhavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ paripakkavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā aparipakkavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ aparipakkavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā paripakkavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ bahuvedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā appavedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ appavedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā bahuvedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ savedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā avedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ, yamidaṃ kammaṃ avedanīyaṃ taṃ upakkamena vā padhānena vā savedanīyaṃ hotūti alabbhametaṃ; evaṃ sante āyasmantānaṃ nigaṇṭhānaṃ aphalo upakkamo hoti, aphalaṃ padhānaṃ”. 
   “Evaṃvādī, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā. Evaṃvādīnaṃ, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhānaṃ dasa sahadhammikā vādānuvādā gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ āgacchanti. 
   9. “Sace, bhikkhave, sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā pubbe dukkaṭakammakārino yaṃ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā pāpakena issarena nimmitā yaṃ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā pāpasaṅgatikā yaṃ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā pāpābhijātikā yaṃ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā evarūpā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamā yaṃ etarahi evarūpā dukkhā tibbā kaṭukā vedanā vediyanti. 
   “Sace, bhikkhave, sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā; no ce sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā; no ce sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā; no ce sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā; no ce sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā; no ce sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, gārayhā nigaṇṭhā. Evaṃvādī, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhā. Evaṃvādīnaṃ, bhikkhave, nigaṇṭhānaṃ ime dasa sahadhammikā vādānuvādā gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ āgacchanti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, aphalo upakkamo hoti, aphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   10. “Kathañca, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti, dhammikañca sukhaṃ na pariccajati, tasmiñca sukhe anadhimucchito hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hotī’ti. So yassa hi khvāssa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, saṅkhāraṃ tattha padahati. Yassa panassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti, upekkhaṃ tattha bhāveti. Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti– evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti– evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. 
   11. “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho. So taṃ itthiṃ passeyya aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu tassa purisassa amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Taṃ kissa hetu”? “Amu hi, bhante, puriso amussā itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho Tasmā taṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā”ti. “Atha kho, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho amussā itthiyā sāratto paṭibaddhacitto tibbacchando tibbāpekkho. Tassa me amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ yo me amussā itthiyā chandarāgo taṃ pajaheyyan’ti. So yo amussā itthiyā chandarāgo taṃ pajaheyya. So taṃ itthiṃ passeyya aparena samayena aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu tassa purisassa amuṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”. “Taṃ kissa hetu”? “Amu hi, bhante, puriso amussā itthiyā virāgo. Tasmā taṃ itthiṃ disvā aññena purisena saddhiṃ santiṭṭhantiṃ sallapantiṃ sañjagghantiṃ saṃhasantiṃ na uppajjeyyuṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā” ti. 
   “Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na heva anaddhabhūtaṃ attānaṃ dukkhena addhabhāveti, dhammikañca sukhaṃ na pariccajati, tasmiñca sukhe anadhimucchito hoti. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘imassa kho me dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, imassa pana me dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hotī’ti. So yassa hi khvāssa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti, saṅkhāraṃ tattha padahati; yassa panassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti, upekkhaṃ tattha bhāveti. Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa saṅkhāraṃ padahato saṅkhārappadhānā virāgo hoti– evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti Tassa tassa dukkhanidānassa ajjhupekkhato upekkhaṃ bhāvayato virāgo hoti– evampissa taṃ dukkhaṃ nijjiṇṇaṃ hoti. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   12. “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘yathāsukhaṃ kho me viharato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti; dukkhāya pana me attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyyan’ti. So dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Tassa dukkhāya attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. So na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Yassa hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu atthāya dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyya svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. Tasmā na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ. Yato kho, bhikkhave, usukārassa tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpitaṃ hoti paritāpitaṃ ujuṃ kataṃ kammaniyaṃ, na so taṃ aparena samayena usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu? Yassa hi so, bhikkhave, atthāya usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeyya paritāpeyya ujuṃ kareyya kammaniyaṃ svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. Tasmā na aparena samayena usukāro tejanaṃ dvīsu alātesu ātāpeti paritāpeti ujuṃ karoti kammaniyaṃ. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘yathāsukhaṃ kho me viharato akusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti, kusalā dhammā parihāyanti; dukkhāya pana me attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyyan’ti. So dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Tassa dukkhāya attānaṃ padahato akusalā dhammā parihāyanti, kusalā dhammā abhivaḍḍhanti. So na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Taṃ kissa hetu? Yassa hi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu atthāya dukkhāya attānaṃ padaheyya svāssa attho abhinipphanno hoti. Tasmā na aparena samayena dukkhāya attānaṃ padahati. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   13. “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idha tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā. So imaṃ lokaṃ sadevakaṃ samārakaṃ sabrahmakaṃ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṃ pajaṃ sadevamanussaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Taṃ dhammaṃ suṇāti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā aññatarasmiṃ vā kule paccājāto. So taṃ dhammaṃ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṃ paṭilabhati. So tena saddhāpaṭilābhena samannāgato iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘sambādho gharāvāso rajāpatho, abbhokāso pabbajjā. Nayidaṃ sukaraṃ agāraṃ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṃ ekantaparisuddhaṃ saṅkhalikhitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ carituṃ. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajeyyan’ti. So aparena samayena appaṃ vā bhogakkhandhaṃ pahāya mahantaṃ vā bhogakkhandhaṃ pahāya, appaṃ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṃ pahāya mahantaṃ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṃ pahāya kesamassuṃ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati. 
   14. “So evaṃ pabbajito samāno bhikkhūnaṃ sikkhāsājīvasamāpanno pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho, lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. Adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharati. Abrahmacariyaṃ pahāya brahmacārī hoti ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti saccavādī saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaṃvādako lokassa. Pisuṇaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti; ito sutvā na amutra akkhātā imesaṃ bhedāya, amutra vā sutvā na imesaṃ akkhātā amūsaṃ bhedāya– iti bhinnānaṃ vā sandhātā sahitānaṃ vā anuppadātā samaggārāmo samaggarato samagganandī samaggakaraṇiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti. Pharusaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti; yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā tathārūpiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā hoti. Samphappalāpaṃ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī, nidhānavatiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā kālena sāpadesaṃ pariyantavatiṃ atthasaṃhitaṃ. So bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato hoti. Ekabhattiko hoti rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. Naccagītavāditavisūkadassanā paṭivirato hoti. Mālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. Uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato hoti. Jātarūparajatapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Āmakadhaññapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Āmakamaṃsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Itthikumārikapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Dāsidāsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Ajeḷakapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Kukkuṭasūkarapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Hatthigavassavaḷavapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Khettavatthupaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato hoti. Kayavikkayā paṭivirato hoti. Tulākūṭakaṃsakūṭamānakūṭā paṭivirato hoti. Ukkoṭanavañcananikatisāciyogā paṭivirato hoti. Chedanavadhabandhanaviparāmosa-ālopasahasākārā paṭivirato hoti. 
   “So santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena, kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati samādāyeva pakkamati. Seyyathāpi nāma pakkhī sakuṇo yena yeneva ḍeti sapattabhārova ḍeti, evameva bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena, kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena; so yena yeneva pakkamati samādāyeva pakkamati. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṃ anavajjasukhaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. 
   15. “So cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā …pe… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā …pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā …pe… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā …pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ manindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṃ, manindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjati. So iminā ariyena indriyasaṃvarena samannāgato ajjhattaṃ abyāsekasukhaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. 
   “So abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajāna-kārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. 
   16. “So iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato, (imāya ca ariyāya santuṭṭhiyā samannāgato,) iminā ca ariyena indriyasaṃvarena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena satisampajaññena samannāgato vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. So pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So abhijjhaṃ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati, abhijjhāya cittaṃ parisodheti. Byāpādapadosaṃ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī, byāpādapadosā cittaṃ parisodheti. Thinamiddhaṃ pahāya vigatathinamiddho viharati ālokasaññī sato sampajāno, thinamiddhā cittaṃ parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṃ vūpasantacitto uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṃ parisodheti. Vicikicchaṃ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati akathaṃkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṃ parisodheti. 
   “So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evampi bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti. Yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti– ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā, adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   17. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ – ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṃsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṃvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe– ‘amutrāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṃ; tatrāpāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno’ti. Iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   18. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti ‘ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. Evampi, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. 
   19. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti; ‘ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Evampi kho, bhikkhave, saphalo upakkamo hoti, saphalaṃ padhānaṃ. Evaṃvādī, bhikkhave, tathāgatā. Evaṃvādīnaṃ, bhikkhave, tathāgatānaṃ dasa sahadhammikā pāsaṃsaṭṭhānā āgacchanti. 
   20. “Sace bhikkhave, sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, tathāgato pubbe sukatakammakārī yaṃ etarahi evarūpā anāsavā sukhā vedanā vedeti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, tathāgato bhaddakena issarena nimmito yaṃ etarahi evarūpā anāsavā sukhā vedanā vedeti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, tathāgato kalyāṇasaṅgatiko yaṃ etarahi evarūpā anāsavā sukhā vedanā vedeti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, tathāgato kalyāṇābhijātiko yaṃ etarahi evarūpā anāsavā sukhā vedanā vedeti. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti; addhā, bhikkhave, tathāgato kalyāṇadiṭṭhadhammūpakkamo yaṃ etarahi evarūpā anāsavā sukhā vedanā vedeti. 
   “Sace, bhikkhave, sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato; no ce sattā pubbekatahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato; no ce sattā issaranimmānahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato; no ce sattā saṅgatibhāvahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato; no ce sattā abhijātihetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato. Sace, bhikkhave, sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato; no ce sattā diṭṭhadhammūpakkamahetu sukhadukkhaṃ paṭisaṃvedenti, pāsaṃso tathāgato. Evaṃvādī, bhikkhave, tathāgatā. Evaṃvādīnaṃ, bhikkhave, tathāgatānaṃ ime dasa sahadhammikā pāsaṃsaṭṭhānā āgacchantī”ti. 
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti. 
   Devadahasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ paṭhamaṃ.