貧窮經

 

 

 

    本經與巴利《增支部》第6部第45篇的《負債經》的內容完全相同。我們常看到新聞中有人因為成為卡奴,或者向地下錢莊舉債,結果承受不了債務及暴力討債的壓力,舉家自殺。世尊在經中就是以貧窮而向他人舉債,以及遭債主暴力討債等壓力痛苦為喻,告訴我們一個在身口意各方面都不善的人,就如同窮人向他人舉債,然後受到債務的壓迫,必將苦不堪言。這種人就算在世間富可敵國,但對於如來的聖法而言仍是一個無權、無勢的窮人。

    而一個人不論是貧或是富,只要他()具有如來聖法中的七聖()財,也就是:信、戒、慚、愧、聞、施、與慧,那麼他()在如來的聖法之中就有資格被稱為富貴中人。

    農曆馬年歲末將盡,在此謹以本經的內容迴向祝福諸法友在閱讀本經後,能產生淨信,並依法奉行,成為不論在經濟上及心靈上都是財富無限的富人。

選譯自《中阿含125經》之《貧窮經》

喬正一白話譯於西元2015/2/15八關齋戒日

    我是這樣聽聞的:

    有一次,佛陀遊方到了古印度的舍衛國,暫時住在勝林給孤獨園林裡。

    當時,世尊告訴諸比丘:「比丘們,我問你們,世上有人很窮困,這是不是一種很大的痛苦?」

    諸比丘回答:「是的,世尊!」

    世尊又問諸比丘:「假設這些窮人必須向他人舉債度日,那麼向他人舉債是不是一種很大的痛苦?」

    「沒錯,世尊!」

    「如果有人背負債務以後,無法按時清償,於是乎利息滾入本金,債務便愈來愈沉重,是否是一種很大的痛苦?」

    「沒錯,世尊!」

    「如果有人因為利滾利而無法償還債務,當面臨債主上門索債時,這是不是一種很大的痛苦?」

    「的確是,世尊!」

    「假設當債主上門討債,而得不到清償,於是乎債主天天上門討債,這是不是一種很大的痛苦?」

    「的確是,世尊!」  

    「如果有人因為還不出錢,於是遭到債主的恐嚇、強制拘留、甚至是凌辱及暴力等的傷害,這是不是一種很大的痛苦呢?」

    「的確是,世尊!」

    「所以,我們可以肯定不論是貧窮、舉債、債務的利息滾入本金、債主上門討債、債主天天上門討債、債主以暴力等恐怖的手段討債等,對債務人來說都是一種很大的痛苦。

    同理,如果有人於如來的聖法之中,對於善法沒有淨信,不持戒、不博聞、沒有布施、沒有智慧,那麼就算此人坐擁很多的金、銀、琉璃、水晶、摩尼、白珂、螺璧、珊瑚、琥珀、碼碯、玳瑁、硨渠、碧玉、赤石、琁珠等昂貴的珍寶,然而對於如來的聖法而言,依然是貧窮,無權也無勢。

    如果此人造作身惡行,口、意等惡行,對於我聖法而言,就是一種不善,如同舉債。

    又假設此人意圖掩飾覆藏自己的身之惡行,不自發露,不想讓他人知道,不想被他人指責;或打算掩飾覆藏自己的口、意等惡行,不自發露,不想讓他人知道,不想被他人指責。這種行為對於我的聖法來說就是一種不善,如同利息滾入本金。

    假設此人不論是走入村邑或走出村外,當有少欲、知足、樂修梵行的比丘看見此人後,便對其他比丘說:『諸位賢者!此人曾做了什麼惡行或犯了什麼戒,此人是村邑的障礙。』假設此人辯稱:『諸位賢者!我沒有這些惡行。』這種行為就是我聖法中所謂的不善,如同被債主上門追討債務。

    假設此人在無人之處,或在山林樹下,或在空閑之處居住,但心中不斷冒出三種不善之念:貪欲念、瞋恚念、癡害念,這就是我聖法中所謂的不善,如同債主天天上門索債。

    假設此人因為造作了身口意等惡行,因此緣此,死後必墮入惡處,重生於地獄中,這就是我聖法中所謂的不善,如同遭債主以暴力等恐怖的手段討債。

    但我從未看過有任何一種恐怖的暴力手段,能比身處在地獄、畜生、餓鬼中還要更痛苦、更沉重。唯有當煩惱斷盡的阿羅漢比丘已知、滅盡,拔除其造成生死輪迴的根本,永無來生,才能完全從這三種痛苦(地獄、餓鬼、畜牲)中超脫。」

    於是,世尊說了以下的偈頌作為總結:

「世間貧窮苦,舉貸他錢財,舉貸錢財已,他責為苦惱。
 
財主往求索,因此收繫縛,此縛甚重苦,世間樂於欲。
 於聖法亦然,若無有正信,無慚及無愧,作惡不善行。
 身作不善行,口意俱亦然,覆藏不欲說,不樂正教訶。
 若有數數行,意念則為苦,或村或靜處,因是必有悔。
 身口習諸行,及意之所念,惡業轉增多,數數作復作。
 彼惡業無慧,多作不善已,隨所生畢訖,必往地獄縛,

此縛最甚苦,雄猛之所離。如法得財利,不負得安隱,

  施與得歡喜,二俱皆獲利,如是諸居士,因施福增多。
 如是聖法中,若有好誠信,具足成慚愧,庶幾無慳貪。
 已捨離五蓋,常樂行精進,成就諸禪定,滿具常棄樂。
 已得無食樂,猶如水浴淨,不動心解脫,一切有結盡。
   無病為涅槃,謂之無上燈,無憂無塵安,是說不移動。」

    當佛陀說完本經以後,諸比丘聽聞佛陀所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

原文/

中阿含125/貧窮經(大品)

  我聞如是:
  一時,佛遊舍衛國,在勝林給孤獨園。
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘:
  「世有欲人貧窮,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  世尊復告諸比丘曰:
  「若有欲人貧窮舉貸他家財物,世中舉貸他家財物,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  世尊復告諸比丘曰:
  「若有欲人舉貸財物,不得時還,{}[]曰長息,世中長息,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  世尊復告諸比丘曰:
  「若有欲人長息不還,財主責索,世中財主責索,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  世尊復告諸比丘曰:
  「若有欲人財主責索,不能得償,財主數往至彼求索,世中財主數往至彼求索,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  世尊復告諸比丘曰:
  「若有欲人財主數往至彼求索,彼故不還,便為財主之所收縛,世中為財主收縛,為大苦耶?」
  諸比丘白曰:「爾也,世尊!」
  「是為:世中有欲人貧窮是大苦,世中有欲人舉貸財物是大苦,世中有欲人舉貸長息是大苦,世中有欲人財主責索是大苦,世中有欲人財主數往至彼求索是大苦,世中有欲人為財主收縛是大苦。如是,若有於此聖法之中,無信於善法,無禁戒、無博聞、無布施、無智慧於善法,彼雖多有金、銀、琉璃、水精、摩尼、白珂、螺璧、珊瑚、琥珀、碼碯、瑇()瑁、硨渠、碧玉、赤石、琁珠,然,彼故貧窮,無有力勢,是我聖法中說不善、貧窮也。
  彼身惡行,口、意惡行,是我聖法中說不善、舉貸也。
  彼欲覆藏身之惡行,不自發露,不欲道說,不欲令人訶責,不順求,欲覆藏口、意惡行,不自發露,不欲道說,不欲令人訶責,不順求,是我聖法中說不善、長息也。
  彼或行村邑及村邑外,諸梵行者見已,便作是說:『諸賢!此人如是作、如是行、如是惡、如是不淨,是村邑刺。』彼作是說:『諸賢!我不如是作、不如是行、不如是惡、不如是不淨,亦非村邑刺。』是我聖法中說不善、責索也。
  彼或在無事處,或在山林樹下,或在空閑居,念三不善念:欲念、恚念、害念,是我聖法中說不善、數往求索也。
  彼作身惡行,口、意惡行,彼作身惡行,口、意惡行已,因此緣此,身壞命終,必至惡處,生地獄中,是我聖法中說不善收縛也。我不見縛更有如是苦、如是重、如是麁、如是不可樂,如地獄、畜生、餓鬼縛也。此三苦縛,漏盡阿羅訶比丘已知、滅盡,拔其根本,永無來生。」
  於是,世尊說此頌曰:
  「世間貧窮苦,舉貸他錢財,舉貸錢財已,他責為苦惱。
   財主往求索,因此收繫縛,此縛甚重苦,世間樂於欲。
   於聖法亦然,若無有正信,無慚及無愧,作惡不善行。
   身作不善行,口意俱亦然,覆藏不欲說,不樂正教訶。
   若有數數行,意念則為苦,或村或靜處,因是必有悔。
   身口習諸行,及意之所念,惡業轉增多,數數作復作。
   彼惡業無慧,多作不善已,隨所生畢訖,必往地獄縛,此縛最甚苦,雄猛之所離。
   如法得財利,不負得安隱,施與得歡喜,二俱皆獲利,如是諸居士,因施福增多。
   如是聖法中,若有好誠信,具足成慚愧,庶幾無慳貪。
   已捨離五蓋,常樂行精進,成就諸禪定,滿具常棄樂。
   已得無食樂,猶如水浴淨,不動心解脫,一切有結盡。
   無病為涅槃,謂之無上燈,無憂無塵安,是說不移動。」
  佛說如是,彼諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

巴利增支英譯版《負債經》

AN 6.45

PTS: A iii 351

Ina Sutta: Debt

translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu

© 1998

"Monks, for one who partakes of sensuality, poverty is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"And a poor, destitute, penniless person gets into debt. For one who partakes of sensuality, getting into debt is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"And a poor, destitute, penniless person, having gotten into debt, owes interest payments. For one who partakes of sensuality, interest payment is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"And when a poor, destitute, penniless person owing interest payments does not pay interest on time, they serve him notice. For one who partakes of sensuality, being served notice is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"And when a poor, destitute, penniless person, being served notice, does not pay, they hound him. For one who partakes of sensuality, being hounded is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"And when a poor, destitute, penniless person, being hounded, does not pay, he is put into bondage. For one who partakes of sensuality, bondage is suffering in the world."

"Yes, lord."

"Thus, monks, poverty is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Getting into debt is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Interest payment is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Being served notice is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Being hounded is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality. Bondage is suffering in the world for one who partakes of sensuality.

"In the same way, monks, whoever has no conviction with regard to skillful mental qualities, no sense of conscience with regard to skillful mental qualities, no sense of concern with regard to skillful mental qualities, no persistence with regard to skillful mental qualities, no discernment with regard to skillful mental qualities is, in the discipline of a noble one, said to be poor, destitute, & penniless.

"He — poor, destitute, & penniless, having no conviction with regard to skillful mental qualities, no sense of conscience... no sense of concern... no persistence... no discernment with regard to skillful mental qualities — engages in misconduct by way of the body, misconduct by way of speech, misconduct by way of the mind. For him, I tell you, this is getting into debt.

"For the purpose of concealing his bodily misconduct, he formulates evil desires: He desires, 'May they not know about me.' He resolves, 'May they not know about me.' He speaks, [thinking,] 'May they not know about me.' He makes an effort with his body, [thinking,] 'May they not know about me.' For the purpose of concealing his verbal misconduct... For the purpose of concealing his mental misconduct, he formulates evil desires: He desires, 'May they not know about me.' He resolves, 'May they not know about me.' He speaks, [thinking,] 'May they not know about me.' He makes an effort with his body, [thinking,] 'May they not know about me.' For him, I tell you, this is interest payment.

"And then his well-behaved companions in the holy life say about him, 'This venerable one acts in this way, behaves in this way.' For him, I tell you, this is being served notice.

"And then, when he has gone to the wilderness, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty dwelling, he is beset with evil, unskillful thoughts accompanied by remorse. For him, I tell you, this is being hounded.

"He — poor, destitute, & penniless, having engaged in misconduct by way of the body, misconduct by way of speech, & misconduct by way of the mind — on the break-up of the body, after death, is bound by the bond of hell or the bond of the animal womb. And I can imagine no one other bond so tormenting, so painful, so obstructive to the unexcelled rest from bondage, as the bond of hell or the bond of the animal womb." Poverty is called suffering in the world; so, too, is getting into debt.

A poor person, in debt, partaking of sensuality, suffers hardship.

Then they hound him and put him into bondage:the painful bond for one longing to gain sensual pleasures.

Now, anyone with no conviction in the discipline of a noble one — no sense of conscience, no sense of concern — contemplating evil actions, doing wrong by way of body, wrong by way of speech, & wrong by way of the mind, wants: 'May they not know about me.'

He creeps along in body, speech, or mind, piling up evil actions, here & there, again & again. He, with evil actions, his wisdom weak, knowing his own wrong-doing, is

a poor person, in debt. Partaking of sensuality, he suffers hardship. Then they hound him — painful mental resolves born of remorse — at home or in the wilderness.

He, with evil actions, his wisdom weak, knowing his own wrong-doing, goes to an animal womb or is bound in hell: the painful bond from which the enlightened are freed.

But one with confidence, living at home, making gifts of his belongings, righteously-gained, wins both goals: advantage in the here-&-now, & happiness in the world beyond. The liberality of this householder piles up merit.

Now, anyone with conviction firmly established in the discipline of a noble one — with a sense of conscience, a sense of concern, discerning & restrained by virtue — is, in the discipline of a noble one, said to be living in ease.

Gaining a pleasure not of the flesh,he determines on equanimity: abandoning the five hindrances — persistence constantly aroused — entering the jhanas: unified, mindful, &wise.

Knowing this as it actually is in the total ending of all fetters, through everywhere not-clinging, his mind is rightly released.

In him, Such, rightly released, there is the knowledge, in the total ending of the fetters of becoming: 'My release is unshakable.'

That is the highest knowledge that, the happiness unexcelled.

Sorrowless, dustless, at rest, that is release from debt.

巴利語經文
AN.6.45/ 3. Iṇasuttaṃ
   45. “Dāliddiyaṃ, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Yampi, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko iṇaṃ ādiyati, iṇādānampi, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Yampi, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko iṇaṃ ādiyitvā vaḍḍhiṃ paṭissuṇāti, vaḍḍhipi, bhikkhave, dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Yampi, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko vaḍḍhiṃ paṭissuṇitvā kālābhataṃ vaḍḍhiṃ na deti, codentipi naṃ; codanāpi, bhikkhave, dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Yampi, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko codiyamāno na deti, anucarantipi naṃ; anucariyāpi, bhikkhave, dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Yampi, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko anucariyamāno na deti, bandhantipi naṃ; bandhanampi, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”.
   “Iti kho, bhikkhave, dāliddiyampi dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino, iṇādānampi dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino, vaḍḍhipi dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino, codanāpi dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino, anucariyāpi dukkhā lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino, bandhanampi dukkhaṃ lokasmiṃ kāmabhogino; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave yassa kassaci saddhā natthi kusalesu dhammesu, hirī natthi kusalesu dhammesu, ottappaṃ natthi kusalesu dhammesu, vīriyaṃ natthi kusalesu dhammesu, paññā natthi kusalesu dhammesu– ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ariyassa vinaye daliddo assako anāḷhiko.
   “Sa kho so, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko saddhāya asati kusalesu dhammesu, hiriyā asati kusalesu dhammesu, ottappe asati kusalesu dhammesu, vīriye asati kusalesu dhammesu, paññāya asati kusalesu dhammesu, kāyena duccaritaṃ carati, vācāya duccaritaṃ carati, manasā duccaritaṃ carati. Idamassa iṇādānasmiṃ vadāmi.
   “So tassa kāyaduccaritassa paṭicchādanahetu pāpikaṃ icchaṃ paṇidahati. ‘Mā maṃ jaññū’ti icchati, ‘mā maṃ jaññū’ti saṅkappati ‘mā maṃ jaññū’ti vācaṃ bhāsati, ‘mā maṃ jaññū’ti kāyena parakkamati. So tassa vacīduccaritassa paṭicchādanahetu …pe… so tassa manoduccaritassa paṭicchādanahetu …pe… ‘mā maṃ jaññū’ti kāyena parakkamati. Idamassa vaḍḍhiyā vadāmi.
   “Tamenaṃ pesalā sabrahmacārī evamāhaṃsu– ‘ayañca so āyasmā evaṃkārī evaṃsamācāro’ti. Idamassa codanāya vadāmi.
   “Tamenaṃ araññagataṃ vā rukkhamūlagataṃ vā suññāgāragataṃ vā vippaṭisārasahagatā pāpakā akusalavitakkā samudācaranti. Idamassa anucariyāya vadāmi.
   “Sa kho so, bhikkhave, daliddo assako anāḷhiko kāyena duccaritaṃ caritvā vācāya duccaritaṃ caritvā manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā nirayabandhane vā bajjhati tiracchānayonibandhane vā. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, aññaṃ ekabandhanampi samanupassāmi evaṃdāruṇaṃ evaṃkaṭukaṃ evaṃ-antarāyakaraṃ anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya, yathayidaṃ, bhikkhave, nirayabandhanaṃ vā tiracchānayonibandhanaṃ vā”ti.
   “Dāliddiyaṃ dukkhaṃ loke, iṇādānañca vuccati;
   Daliddo iṇamādāya, bhuñjamāno vihaññati.
   “Tato anucaranti naṃ, bandhanampi nigacchati;
   Etañhi bandhanaṃ dukkhaṃ, kāmalābhābhijappinaṃ.
   “Tatheva ariyavinaye, saddhā yassa na vijjati;
   Ahirīko anottappī, pāpakammavinibbayo.
   “Kāyaduccaritaṃ katvā, vacīduccaritāni ca;
   Manoduccaritaṃ katvā, ‘mā maṃ jaññū’ti icchati.
   “So saṃsappati kāyena, vācāya uda cetasā;
   Pāpakammaṃ pavaḍḍhento, tattha tattha punappunaṃ.
   “So pāpakammo dummedho, jānaṃ dukkaṭamattano;
   Daliddo iṇamādāya, bhuñjamāno vihaññati.
   “Tato anucaranti naṃ, saṅkappā mānasā dukhā;
   Gāme vā yadi vāraññe, yassa vippaṭisārajā.
   “So pāpakammo dummedho, jānaṃ dukkaṭamattano;
   Yonimaññataraṃ gantvā, niraye vāpi bajjhati.
   “Etañhi bandhanaṃ dukkhaṃ, yamhā dhīro pamuccati;
   Dhammaladdhehi bhogehi, dadaṃ cittaṃ pasādayaṃ.
   “Ubhayattha kaṭaggāho, saddhassa gharamesino;
   Diṭṭhadhammahitatthāya, samparāyasukhāya ca.
   Evametaṃ gahaṭṭhānaṃ, cāgo puññaṃ pavaḍḍhati.
   “Tatheva ariyavinaye, saddhā yassa patiṭṭhitā;
   Hirīmano ca ottappī, paññavā sīlasaṃvuto.
   “Eso kho ariyavinaye, ‘sukhajīvī’ti vuccati;
   Nirāmisaṃ sukhaṃ laddhā, upekkhaṃ adhitiṭṭhati.
   “Pañca nīvaraṇe hitvā, niccaṃ āraddhavīriyo;
   Jhānāni upasampajja, ekodi nipako sato.
   “Evaṃ ñatvā yathābhūtaṃ, sabbasaṃyojanakkhaye;
   Sabbaso anupādāya, sammā cittaṃ vimuccati.
   “Tassa sammā vimuttassa, ñāṇaṃ ce hoti tādino;
   ‘Akuppā me vimuttī’ti, bhavasaṃyojanakkhaye.
   “Etaṃ kho paramaṃ ñāṇaṃ, etaṃ sukhamanuttaraṃ;
   Asokaṃ virajaṃ khemaṃ, etaṃ ānaṇyam