這個世界必將有末日的一天,但絕非現在,那是在以人類的時間概念來看非常非常遙遠的未來,所以當有人散布世界末日即將到來的宗教廣告時,就姑且一笑置之吧。

    本經是佛陀藉由世界都終將有毀滅的一天為例,讓我們思惟這個世上又有甚麼人、事、物是值得我們去愛戀貪著?甚麼是可讓我們依靠?又有甚麼是我們放不下的?

    有朋友曾對我感嘆道現在的房價都飆漲到一個匪夷所思的程度,但我卻說這種不正常的現象必將變成泡沫,因為「物極必反」,正所謂「積聚皆消散,崇高必墮落,合會終別離,有命咸歸死。」

    而上開這段話的真諦也是說明世事無常,對於富貴貧賤、生離死別不要看得太重。是日已過,命亦隨減,如魚少水,斯有何樂?我們唯一能做的,就是把握有限的生命,努力修行,對世間的一切都不應當愛戀貪著,當求厭離,當求捨離,當求解脫。而這也是佛陀在這篇經文中告訴我們的重點。

選譯自北傳《中阿含經》之《七日經》

喬正一白話譯於西元2013/12/22八關齋戒日

 

    我是這樣聽說的:

    有一次,佛陀遊化至古印度的鞞舍離城,並暫時住在由第一美女奈女所奉獻給僧團的樹園林裡。

    當時,世尊告訴諸比丘: 「比丘們,一切皆無常,且不久住,瞬息萬變,不可依靠。因此,一切皆不值得愛戀,應當厭離,當求捨離,當求解脫。為甚麼呢?

    當這個世界出現乾旱時,一切的草、樹、百穀、藥木皆悉枯槁,摧碎滅盡,它們無法長青。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠。這就是不值得愛戀的理由,應當厭離,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現兩個太陽時,所有的溝渠、川流皆悉枯竭耗盡,不得常住。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠。所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現三個太陽時,所有的大江河皆悉枯竭耗盡,不得常住。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠。所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現四個太陽時,從地球上的泉源所流出的琣驉B搖尤那、舍牢浮、阿夷羅婆提、摩企等五大河,皆悉枯竭耗盡,不得常住。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠。所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現五個太陽時,大海水會因此減少一百由延,然後漸漸減至七百由延,甚至到一百由延。接著,海水會從七棵多羅樹的高度減少到一棵多羅樹的高度,從七個人的身高減至一個人的身高,然後從人的頸部漸漸退至肩、腰、胯、膝、至踝部,最後退至腳趾而消失。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠,所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現六個太陽時,一切大地、須彌山皆燃起煙火,合為一團大煙。那就好像陶師開始起灶時,炊煙四起,合為一團大煙一樣。因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠,所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    當未來的世界出現七個太陽時,一切的大地、須彌山皆開始燃燒,四處一片火海,大風會將火焰吹至梵天。那時,色界二禪的光音天裡那些不懂世界有成住壞空循環的天神一看見大火肆虐,都非常害怕地驚道:『這是哪來的大火?這裡怎麼會有大火?』至於那些在前生就已通曉成住壞空的天神會去安慰那些沒有智慧的天神:『不用怕!那些火燒不到這裡的。』因此,一切行無常、不久住、速變易、不可倚靠。所以,對於諸行都不應當愛戀貪著,應當厭離之,當求捨離,當求解脫。

    比丘們!我今天跟你們說有一天須彌山一定會崩壞消失,大海水一定會乾涸竭盡,一切大地都會被燒光,這些事情又有誰能信呢?會相信的人唯有見諦者。為甚麼呢?

    比丘們!在過去很久很久以前,有一位名叫善眼的外道仙人大師,他已捨離欲愛,擁有五大神通。

    這位善眼大師的座下有一千多名弟子,善眼大師為他的諸弟子說生往梵天的修行方法。

    若善眼大師的諸弟子有不認真修行或不依法奉行者,這些弟子死後有的轉生在四王天,或轉生在三十三天,或轉生在焰摩天,或轉生在兜率哆天,或轉生在化樂天,或轉生在他化樂天。

    假設諸弟子有認真修行並依法奉行法者,他們修四梵住,捨離於欲,當他們死後便得轉生到梵天。

    那時,善眼大師心想:『我不應該與弟子們死後轉生到一樣的世界,我應該要修增上慈【即悲心成就,慈心與初禪梵天相應,悲心與二禪光音天相應。】,只有修增上慈,死後才能轉生到光音天中。』於是,善眼大師修增上慈,死後果真轉生至光音天中。

   
那位善眼大師及諸弟子都因為認真修行,故而皆得大善果報。

    比丘們!你們認為過去的那位善眼大師是誰?其實,他就是我的前身。我於當時親行梵天仙道,成就了自己,也成就了他人,我悲憫世間,為了天神及人類的安隱快樂而修行。只可惜,我當時所說的法仍不至究竟,不究竟白淨,不究竟梵行,不究竟圓滿梵行。因此,當時的我及我的弟子仍未能脫離生、老、病、死、啼哭、憂慼,亦未能得脫一切煩惱憂苦。

    比丘們!我今天出現在世間,如今已證得如來、無所著、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無上士道法御、天人師、號佛、眾祐。我今自利利他,成就了自己,也饒益多人,悲憫世間,為了天神及人類的幸福快樂而追求法義真理。我今天所說的法都是至究竟,究竟白淨,究竟梵行,究竟圓滿梵行,我今已離生、老、病、死、啼哭、憂慼,我今已脫離一切的苦。」

    當佛陀說完這部經後,諸比丘聽聞佛陀所說的法,都心生歡喜,並依法奉行。

原文/

中阿含8/七日經
  我聞如是:
  一時,佛遊鞞舍離,在
氏樹園。
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘:
  「一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫,所以者何?
  有時不雨;當不雨時,一切諸樹、百穀、藥木皆悉枯槁,摧碎滅盡,不得常住。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時二日出世;二日出時,諸溝渠川流皆悉竭盡,不得常住。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時三日出世;三日出時,諸大江河皆悉竭盡,不得常住。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時四日出世;四日出時,諸大泉源從閻浮洲五河所出:一曰琣驉A二曰搖尤那,三曰舍牢浮,四曰阿夷羅婆提,五曰摩企,彼大泉源皆悉竭盡,不得常住。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時五日出世;五日出時,大海水減一百由延,轉減乃至七百由延。五日出時,海水餘有七百由延,轉減乃至一百由延。五日出時,大海水減一多羅樹,轉減乃至七多羅樹。五日出時,海水餘有七多羅樹,轉減乃至一多羅樹。五日出時,海水減一人,轉減乃至七人。五日出時,海水餘有七人,轉減乃至一人。五日出時,海水減至頸、至肩、至腰、至{
}[]、至膝、至踝,有時海水消盡,不足沒指。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時六日出世;六日出時,一切大地、須彌山王皆悉煙起,合為一煙。譬如:陶師始爨竈()時,皆悉煙起,合為一煙,如是,六日出時,一切大地、須彌山王皆悉煙起,合為一煙。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  復次,有時七日出世;七日出時,一切大地、須彌山王洞燃俱熾,合為一{
㷿}[]。如是,七日出時,一切大地須彌山王洞燃俱熾,合為一{㷿}[],風吹火{㷿}[],乃至梵天。是時,晃昱諸天始生天者,不諳世間成敗,不見世間成敗,不知世間成敗,見大火已,皆恐怖毛豎而作是念:火不來至此耶?火不來至此耶?前生諸天諳世間成敗,見世間成敗,知世間成敗,見大火已,慰勞諸天曰:『莫得恐怖!火法齊彼,終不至此。』七日出時,須彌山王百由延崩散壞滅盡,二百由延、三百由延,乃至七百由延崩散壞滅盡。七日出時,須彌山王及此大地燒壞消滅,無餘栽燼,如燃酥油,煎熬消盡,無餘煙墨,如是,七日出時,須彌山王及此大地無餘烖()燼。是故,一切行無常、不久住法、速變易法、不可{}[]法,如是,諸行不當樂著,當患厭之,當求捨離,當求解脫。
  我今為汝說須彌山王當崩壞盡,誰有能信?唯見諦者耳;我今為汝說大海水當竭消盡,誰有能信?唯見諦者耳;我今為汝說一切大地當燒燃盡,誰有能信?唯見諦者耳,所以者何?比丘!昔有大師名曰善眼,為外道仙人之所師宗,捨離欲愛,得如意足。善眼大師有無量百千弟子,善眼大師為諸弟子說梵世法。若善眼大師為說梵世法時,諸弟子等有不具足奉行法者,彼命終已,或生四王天,或生三十三天,或生焰摩天,或生兜率哆天,或生化樂天,或生他化樂天。若善眼大師為說梵世法時,諸弟子等設有具足奉行法者,彼修四梵室,捨離於欲,彼命終已,得生梵天。
  彼時,善眼大師而作是念:『我不應與弟子等同俱至後世共生一處,我今寧可更修增上慈,修增上慈已,命終得生晃昱天中。』彼時,善眼大師則於後時更修增上慈,修增上慈已,命終得生晃昱天中。善眼大師及諸弟子學道不虛,得大果報。
  諸比丘!於意云何?昔善眼大師為外道仙人之所師宗,捨離欲愛,得如意足者,汝謂異人耶?莫作斯念!當知即是我也。我於爾時名善眼大師,為外道仙人之所師宗,捨離欲愛,得如意足。我於爾時有無量百千弟子,我於爾時為諸弟子說梵世法。我說梵世法時,諸弟子等有不具足奉行法者,彼命終已,或生四王天,或生三十三天,或生焰摩天,或生兜率哆天,或生化樂天,或生他化樂天。我說梵世法時,諸弟子等設有具足奉行法者,修四梵室,捨離於欲,彼命終已,得生梵天。我於爾時而作是念:『我不應與弟子等同俱至後世共生一處,我今寧可更修增上慈,修增上慈已,命終得生晃昱天中。』我於後時更修增上慈,修增上慈已,命終得生晃昱天中。我於爾時及諸弟子學道不虛,得大果報。
  我於爾時親行斯道,為自饒益,亦饒益他,饒益多人,愍傷世間,為天、為人求義及饒益,求安隱快樂。爾時,說法不至究竟,不究竟白淨,不究竟梵行,不究竟梵行訖,爾時,不離生、老、病、死、啼哭、憂慼,亦未能得脫一切苦。
  比丘!我今出世,如來、無所著、等正覺、明行成為、善逝、世間解、無上士道法御、天人師、號佛、眾祐,我今自饒益,亦饒益他,饒益多人,愍傷世間,為天、為人求義及饒益,求安隱快樂。我今說法得至究竟,究竟白淨,究竟梵行,究竟梵行訖,我今已離生、老、病、死、啼哭、憂慼,我今已得脫一切苦。」
  佛說如是,彼諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

巴利語經文(台灣嘉義法雨道場流通)
AN.7.66(另版AN.7.62)/ 2. Sattasūriyasuttaṃ
   66. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati ambapālivane. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Aniccā bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; anassāsikā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṃ alaṃ virajjituṃ alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Sineru, bhikkhave, pabbatarājā caturāsītiyojanasahassāni āyāmena, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni vitthārena, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni mahāsamudde ajjhogāḷho, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni mahāsamuddā accuggato. Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena bahūni vassāni bahūni vassasatāni bahūni vassasahassāni bahūni vassasatasahassāni devo na vassati. Deve kho pana, bhikkhave, avassante ye kecime bījagāmabhūtagāmā osadhitiṇavanappatayo te ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena dutiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. Dutiyassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yā kāci kunnadiyo kusobbhā tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena tatiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. Tatiyassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yā kāci mahānadiyo, seyyathidaṃ– gaṅgā, yamunā, aciravatī, sarabhū, mahī, tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena catuttho sūriyo pātubhavati. Catutthassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ye te mahāsarā yato imā mahānadiyo pavattanti, seyyathidaṃ– anotattā, sīhapapātā, rathakārā, kaṇṇamuṇḍā, kuṇālā, chaddantā, mandākiniyā, tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena pañcamo sūriyo pātubhavati. Pañcamassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti, dviyojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti, tiyojanasatikānipi, catuyojanasatikānipi, pañcayojanasatikānipi, chayojanasatikānipi, sattayojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti; sattatālampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chatālampi, pañcatālampi, catutālampi, titālampi, dvitālampi tālamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti; sattaporisampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chaporisampi, pañcaporisampi, catuporisampi, tiporisampi, dviporisampi, porisampi, aḍḍhaporisampi, kaṭimattampi, jaṇṇukāmattampi, gopphakamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, saradasamaye thullaphusitake deve vassante tattha tattha gopadesu udakāni ṭhitāni honti; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tattha tattha gopphakamattāni mahāsamudde udakāni ṭhitāni honti. Pañcamassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā aṅgulipabbamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ na hoti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena chaṭṭho sūriyo pātubhavati. Chaṭṭhassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dhūmāyanti saṃdhūmāyanti sampadhūmāyanti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, kumbhakārapāko ālepito paṭhamaṃ dhūmeti saṃdhūmeti sampadhūmeti; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, chaṭṭhassa sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dhūmāyanti saṃdhūmāyanti sampadhūmāyanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena sattamo sūriyo pātubhavati. Sattamassa bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā ādippanti pajjalanti ekajālā bhavanti. Imissā ca, bhikkhave, mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ(ḍayhamānānaṃ?) acci vātena khittā yāva brahmalokāpi gacchati. Sinerussa, bhikkhave, pabbatarājassa jhāyamānassa dayhamānassa vinassamānassa mahatā tejokhandhena abhibhūtassa yojanasatikānipi kūṭāni palujjanti dviyojanasatikānipi, tiyojanasatikānipi, catuyojanasatikānipi, pañcayojanasatikānipi kūṭāni palujjanti. Imissā ca, bhikkhave, mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ neva chārikā paññāyati na masi. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, sappissa vā telassa vā jhāyamānassa dayhamānassa neva chārikā paññāyati na masi; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, imissā ca mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ neva chārikā paññāyati na masi. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ anassāsikā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṃ alaṃ virajjituṃ alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Tatra, bhikkhave, ko mantā ko saddhātā– ‘ayañca pathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dayhissanti vinassissanti, na bhavissantī’ti aññatra diṭṭhapadehi?
   “Bhūtapubbaṃ, bhikkhave, sunetto nāma satthā ahosi titthakaro kāmesu vītarāgo. Sunettassa kho pana, bhikkhave satthuno anekāni sāvakasatāni ahesuṃ. Sunetto, bhikkhave, satthā sāvakānaṃ brahmalokasahabyatāya dhammaṃ desesi. Ye kho pana, bhikkhave, sunettassa satthuno brahmalokasahabyatāya dhammaṃ desentassa sabbena sabbaṃ sāsanaṃ ājāniṃsu te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ brahmalokaṃ upapajjiṃsu. Ye na sabbena sabbaṃ sāsanaṃ ājāniṃsu te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā appekacce paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce tusitānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce yāmānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu appekacce tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu appekacce cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce khattiyamahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce gahapatimahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, sunettassa satthuno etadahosi– ‘na kho metaṃ patirūpaṃ yohaṃ sāvakānaṃ samasamagatiyo assaṃ abhisamparāyaṃ, yaṃnūnāhaṃ uttari mettaṃ bhāveyyan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, sunetto satthā satta vassāni mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvesi. Satta vassāni mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvetvā satta saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe nayimaṃ lokaṃ punarāgamāsi. Saṃvaṭṭamāne sudaṃ, bhikkhave loke ābhassarūpago hoti. Vivaṭṭamāne loke suññaṃ brahmavimānaṃ upapajjati. Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, brahmā hoti mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī. Chattiṃsakkhattuṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakko ahosi devānamindo. Anekasatakkhattuṃ rājā ahosi cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato. Parosahassaṃ kho panassa puttā ahesuṃ sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā. So imaṃ pathaviṃ sāgarapariyantaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasi. So hi nāma, bhikkhave, sunetto satthā evaṃ dīghāyuko samāno evaṃ ciraṭṭhitiko aparimutto ahosi– ‘jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, aparimutto dukkhasmā’ti vadāmi”.
   “Taṃ kissa hetu? Catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Ariyassa, bhikkhave, sīlassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyassa samādhissa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyāya paññāya ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyāya vimuttiyā ananubodhā appaṭivedhā. Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ sīlaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ariyo samādhi anubodho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubodhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubodhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo”ti. Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā–
   “Sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca, vimutti ca anuttarā;
   Anubuddhā ime dhammā, gotamena yasassinā.
   “Iti buddho abhiññāya, dhammamakkhāsi bhikkhunaṃ;
   Dukkhassantakaro satthā, cakkhumā parinibbuto”ti. Dutiyaṃ.