幸福的女人

        「幸福」一辭定義為何?恐怕不同的對象會有不同的答案。但對一般的女人而言,所謂的幸福不外乎美貌、財富、美滿的婚姻、受人愛敬、出生高貴等。該如何獲取這些幸福呢?台灣名模林志玲在西元2004年突然爆紅,名利如潰提之洪水湧向她,她表示一切就像是睡一覺醒來別人將禮物擺在她眼前。但她的幸運真的都是偶然嗎?上天何以如此眷顧林志玲?佛陀告訴我們,此有故彼有,有因、有緣、眾生的願望得以實現,不是靠對神的祈禱,也不是靠宿命的安排,而是「業力」。

        勝鬘夫人就是古印度波斯匿王的愛妃-茉莉,她並非出生貴族,但藉由善業的牽引,她嫁給了波斯匿王,這在四姓階級壁壘分明的印度社會,簡直被視為神話,就連她自己都不敢相信會有這番如麻雀變鳳凰的際遇,於是她去拜見佛陀,並向佛陀請教了一般女人關心的議題,佛陀便藉由這次因緣述說了以下的經文,願能帶給所有法友助益。

選譯自南傳巴利英譯《增支部》第三經

譯於西元2005/10/1颱風夜

我是這樣聽說的:

       有一次,佛陀駐錫在古印度舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園林內,當時,勝鬘夫人前來拜訪佛陀。她見著世尊並向世尊頂禮,隨後便恭敬地在一旁坐下。

       她問世尊:「世尊,請問是什麼樣的因?什麼樣的緣?使一個女人長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,而且困苦貧乏,出生卑賤?

是什麼樣的因?什麼樣的緣?使一個女人長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,但卻富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬?

是什麼樣的因?什麼樣的緣?使一個女人長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,但卻困苦貧乏,出生卑賤?

是什麼樣的因?什麼樣的緣?使一個女人長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,並且富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬?

世尊回答:「勝鬘,一個女人如果平時個性暴躁易怒,每次只要旁人稍微說她一些壞話,她就心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,並且將心中的憤怒表現在外;同時她也不以食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具供養、佈施予沙門、婆羅門一類的修行人;她同時又生性善妒,看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,就覺得嫉妒,並因妒生怒。那麼,這個女人死後不論於何處再出生,她都將長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,而且困苦貧乏,出生卑賤;

其次,一個女人如果平時個性暴躁易怒,每次只要旁人稍微說她一些壞話,她就心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,並且將心中的憤怒表現在外;可是卻樂於以食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具供養、佈施予沙門、婆羅門一類的修行人;她也不生性善妒,看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,不會覺得嫉妒,更不因妒生怒。那麼,這個女人死後不論於何處再出生,她都將長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,但卻富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬;

再者,一個女人如果個性不暴躁易怒,雖然很多人說她的壞話,她也不心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,也不表現生氣或憤怒;但她卻不肯以食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具供養、佈施予沙門、婆羅門一類的修行人;她同時又生性善妒,看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,就覺得嫉妒,並因妒生怒。那麼,這個女人死後不論於何處再出生,她都將長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,,但卻困苦貧乏,出生卑賤;

最後,一個女人如果個性不暴躁易怒,雖然很多人說她的壞話,她也不心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,也不表現生氣或憤怒;同時又樂於以食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具供養、佈施予沙門、婆羅門一類的修行人;她也不生性善妒,看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,不會覺得嫉妒,更不因妒生怒。那麼,這個女人死後不論於何處再出生,她都將長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,並且富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬。

佛陀總結地說:「勝鬘,就是以上的因、以上的緣,使一個女人長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,而且困苦貧乏,出生卑賤;

就是以上的因、以上的緣,使一個女人長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛,但卻富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬;

就是以上的因、以上的緣,使一個女人長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,但卻困苦貧乏,出生卑賤;

就是以上的因、以上的緣,使一個女人長得容貌姣好,嫵媚動人,身材苗條,美麗出眾,受人喜愛,並且富裕多金,出生高貴,地位崇高,受人尊敬」

世尊說完後,勝鬘夫人深受感動,對世尊說:「

世尊,只因我前世生性暴躁易怒,每次只要旁人稍微說我一些壞話,我就心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,並且將心中的憤怒表現在外,因此緣故使我今生長得面貌醜陋,身材粗劣,望之可怖,不受人喜愛。世尊,只因我前世樂於以食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具供養、佈施予沙門、婆羅門一類的修行人;我也不生性善妒,看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,不會覺得嫉妒,更不因妒生怒,因此緣故使我今生富裕多金,貴為王妃,受人尊敬。

世尊,如今我貴為後宮之首,管理所有武士種姓的少女、婆羅門種姓的少女、居士種姓的少女。從今日起,我發願不再暴躁易怒,即使有很多人在說我的壞話,我也不心生怨恨、憤怒、狂怒、怏怏不樂,也不表現生氣或憤怒。同時,我要佈施、供養沙門、婆羅門食物、飲料、房舍、車子、花環、香料、油膏、被褥、以及燈盞等民生用具;看見別人獲得財富、榮譽、尊敬、禮遇、崇拜等好名聲,不心生嫉妒,更不因妒生怒。

世尊,這實在太奇妙了!就譬如有人扶正打翻的東西,揭露隱藏的東西;又好比對迷途者指引迷津;又好比在暗處點燃明燈,使人得以看見各種形色。世尊您今日以各種技巧闡釋教法,也是如此。所以我今願宣誓皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依僧伽,懇請世尊接受我為在家女弟子,直到我生命結束的那一刻為止。」

世尊默然應允,勝鬘夫人知道世尊首肯,心中生起歡喜,頂禮後便離去。

英文原文網址如下:http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/bits/bits043.htm

 

§ 43. HOW TO OBTAIN WEALTH, BEAUTY, AND SOCIAL POSITION.

Translated from the Anguttara-Nikâya (iv.1971).

On a certain occasion The Blessed One was dwelling at Sâvatthi, in Jetavana monastery in Anâthapindika's Park. Then drew near Mallikâ the queen to where the Blessed One was; and having drawn near and greeted The Blessed One, she sat down respectfully at one side. And seated respectfully at one side, Mallikâ the queen spoke to The Blessed One as follows:

"Reverend Sir, what is the reason, and what is the cause, when a woman is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale?

"Reverend Sir, what is the reason, and what is the cause, when a woman is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale?

"Reverend Sir, what is the reason, and what is the cause,

p. 229 [A.iv.1971

when a woman is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale?

"Reverend Sir, what is the reason, and what is the cause, when a woman is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale?"

"Mallikâ, when a woman has been irascible and violent, and at every little thing said against her has felt spiteful, angry, enraged, and sulky, and manifested anger, hatred, and heart-burning; when she has given no alms to monk or Brahman, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses, and lamps, but has been of an envious disposition, and felt envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that came to others, and been furious and envious thereat; then, when she leaves that existence and comes to this one, wherever she may be born, she is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale.

"And, again, Mallikâ, when a woman has been irascible and violent, and at every little thing said against her has felt spiteful, angry, enraged, and sulky, and manifested anger, hatred, and heart-burning; but has given alms to monks and Brahmans, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses, and lamps, and has not been of an envious disposition, nor felt envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that came to others, nor been furious and envious thereat; then, when she leaves that existence and comes to this one, wherever she may be born, she is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale.

"And, again, Mallikâ, when a woman has not been irascible or violent, and though much had been said against her, has not felt spiteful, angry, enraged, or sulky, nor manifested anger, hatred, and heart-burning; when she has given no alms to monk or Brahman, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses,

p. 230 [A.iv.1974

and lamps, but has been of an envious disposition, and felt envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that came to others, and been furious and envious thereat; then, when she leaves that existence and comes to this one wherever she may be born, she is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale.

"And, again, Mallikâ., when a woman has not been irascible or violent, and though much had been said against her, has not felt spiteful, angry, enraged, or sulky, nor manifested anger, hatred, and heart-burning; when she has given alms to monks and Brahmans, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses, and lamps, and has not been of an envious disposition, nor felt envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that came to others, nor been furious and envious thereat; then, when she leaves that existence and comes to this one, wherever she may be born, she is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale.

"This, Mallikâ, is the reason, this is the cause, when a woman is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale.

"This, Mallikâ, is the reason, this is the cause, when a woman is ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale.

"This, Mallikâ, is the reason, this is the cause, when a woman is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and indigent, poor, needy, and low in the social scale.

"This, Mallikâ, is the reason, this is the cause, when a woman is beautiful, attractive, pleasing, and possessed of surpassing loveliness, and rich, wealthy, affluent, and high in the social scale."

When he had thus spoken, Mallikâ the queen replied to The Blessed One as follows:

"Since, now, Reverend Sir, in a former existence I was irascible and violent, and at every little thing said against

p. 231 [A.iv.1977

me felt spiteful, angry, enraged, and sulky, and manifested anger, hatred, and heart-burning, therefore am I now ugly, of a bad figure, and horrible to look at. Since, now, Reverend Sir, in a former existence I gave alms to monks and Brahmans, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses, and lamps, therefore am I now rich, wealthy, and affluent. Since, now, Reverend Sir, in a former existence I was not of an envious disposition, nor felt envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that came to others, nor was furious and envious thereat, therefore am I now high in the social scale.

"Now, in this royal family, Reverend Sir, there are maidens of the warrior caste, maidens of the Brahman caste, and maidens of the householder caste, and I bear rule over them. From this day forth I will not be irascible nor violent, and, though much be said against me, I will not feel spiteful, angry, enraged, or sulky, nor manifest anger, hatred, and heart-burning; I will give alms to monks and Brahmans, of food, drink, building-sites, carriages, garlands, scents, ointments, bedding, dwelling-houses, and lamps; and I will not be of an envious disposition, nor feel envy at the gains, honor, reverence, respect, homage, and worship that shall come to others, nor be furious and envious thereat.

"O wonderful is it, Reverend Sir! O wonderful is it, Reverend Sir! It is as if, Reverend Sir, one were to set up that which was overturned; or were to disclose that which was hidden; or were to point out the way to a lost traveller; or were to carry a lamp into a dark place that they who had eyes might see forms. Even so has The Blessed One expounded the Doctrine in many different ways. I betake myself to The Blessed One for refuge, to the Doctrine, and to the Congregation of the priests. Let The Blessed One receive me, who have come to him for refuge, and accept me as a disciple from this day forth as long as life shall last."


Next: § 44. The Round of Existence

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