牛狗行者經

     康地帕羅比丘序:

        在古印度的佛陀世時代,有一些很怪異的人會去信仰一些很怪異的事,就跟現代有些人仍會相信一些極度詭異、違反自然的觀念一樣。在本經中,我們可以看到有些人竟然相信去模仿動物的行徑便可獲得救贖,也許類似這樣的人也同樣在我們的身邊。

        信仰通常是一回事,但實踐卻又是另一回事。因為有些人的信仰跟他的行為是兩回事,然而信仰在某些情況下還是會影響人的行為。佛陀告訴我們不論是身行、口行、或意行,只要是有意志的行為,並且表現出來,就是業行,將會引導造業的人遲早去親身感受其業果。佛陀在本經中將業與業果間的關係及種類區分成以下四組類型:

一、       黑業有相應的黑報;

二、       白業有相應的白報;

三、       黑與白混雜的雜染業有相應的雜染報;

四、       非黑非白之業有相應的非黑非白果報。

        黑(惡)業不可能感招白(善)報,反之,白(福)業也不能獲得黑(苦)報。然而當不同種類的業,例如善與惡,同時伴隨在一起完成,就有可能參雜混合在一起,感招帶有苦與樂的雜染報。

中譯序:

        本經與北傳中阿含《大業分別經》及《鸚鵡經》的內容近似(見本站中阿含選譯單元內《大業分別經》及《小業分別經》),是佛陀闡釋業的種類及其果報的重要經文,內容趣味橫生,本經藉由學習牛、狗行徑的外道為緣起,佛直斥此行將導致來世轉生為牛與狗,或墮地獄,並有條理的分析業與業報間的關係與種類,為我們長夜漫漫的生死旅程中點燃了一盞明燈。歡迎各位靜心觀賞佛陀的演說。

選譯自南傳巴利英譯《小部》第五十七篇

譯於西元2005/10/17     

我是這樣聽說的:

       有一次,佛陀駐錫在古印度拘利耶國的郁金布城,當時有兩位分別名叫普那散耶的外道苦行僧,平時各自以模仿牛與狗的舉止作為修行方式。其中尤以散耶更是極端,不但模仿狗的行為,還赤身裸體。他們兩人前來拜訪佛陀,與世尊彼此問候過,便坐在一旁。但是散耶的坐姿卻是模仿狗蜷曲在地上,於是普那便開口問佛:「尊者啊,散耶真的很精進,他平時只吃被人丟棄在地上的食物,能做到一般人都做不到的事,他這樣修持已有相當的時日,請問他將有何果報?來世將會轉生至何處?」

        世尊回答:「夠了!算了!不要在問這個問題了!」

        但普那仍不死心,接連第二次、第三次的發問,於是世尊回答:「好吧!普那,既然我無法阻止你一再的追問,我只好如實的回答你。」

        世尊說:「普那,如果有人圓滿且積極地履行如狗一般的作息,圓滿且積極地發展如狗一般的習慣,圓滿且積極地發展如狗一般的心智,圓滿且積極地發展如狗一般的行為,當他修行有成之時,一旦死亡,肉身分解,他將會出生在狗群之中。但如果他心中又存有如此邪見:『但願以此功德,使我來世成為高級或低級的天神』,那麼,我在此可以明確的告訴你,因為這種邪見的緣故,他的來世將有兩種可能:一是地獄;另一則是出生在動物的母胎之中。所以普那,如果散耶成功的修成狗行,那麼他的業行將會引領他來世轉生在狗群之中,甚至是在地獄裡!」

        當世尊說完後,散耶竟痛哭流涕,於是世尊對普那解釋:「這就是為什麼我一再勸阻你不要繼續問下去的緣故。」

      散耶解釋:「世尊,我並不是因為你告訴我實情才難過的哭泣,而是因為我已長久的修持狗行。世尊,普那也是長期修持牛行,他的來世又是如何呢?」

        世尊也同樣勸阻散耶不要再繼續追問下去,但散耶仍不死心,一直央求世尊說明,世尊只好回答:「散耶,既然你一定要知道,我只好誠實的告訴你。」世尊對散耶的回答一如先前對普那的解釋一般,預告普那來世若不是轉生在牛群之中,就是下地獄。當普那聽到世尊這麼說,也同樣的痛哭流涕。世尊對散耶解釋:「這就是為什麼我一再勸阻你不要繼續問下去的緣故。」

        普那解釋:「世尊,我並不是因為你告訴我實情才難過的哭泣,而是因為我已長久的修持牛行。現在,我對世尊充滿信心,我相信世尊一定能教導我們正確的修行方法,指引我們一條明路,讓我和散耶都捨棄這種愚蠢的牛、狗修行方式。」

        世尊說:「普那,你可要仔細地聽,並好好地思惟我所說的法。」

        普那應答:「是的,世尊。」

        世尊解釋:「普那,我以直觀的智慧如實地觀察到眾生的業力有四種類型,是哪四種呢?分別是:

一、       黑業會產生相應的黑報;

二、       白業會產生相應的白報;

三、       黑與白混雜的雜染業會產生相應的雜染報;

四、       非黑非白之業會產生相應的非黑非白果報。

        世尊繼續解釋:「如果有人透過身體的行為去傷害別人,帶給別人痛苦;或經由言語去傷害別人,造成他人痛苦;或心存惡念、惡意,讓別人產生痛苦;藉由以上的惡行,他的來世將會出生在一個充滿痛苦及悲慘的世界,他過去是如何地傷害別人,以及造成別人什麼樣的痛苦,這些傷害及痛苦都會加諸回到他身上。經由如此的接觸,他將會充分、完全的感受到如地獄一般的痛苦。也就是說一個人會轉生至何處,是繫於他會作出何種業行,業力將如影隨形地伴隨著他轉世,因此,我說每一個眾生都是自己業力的繼承者,這就是所謂的黑業有黑報。

其次,如果有人不經由身體的行為去傷害別人,也不帶給別人痛苦;不經由言語去傷害別人,不造成他人痛苦;不心存惡念、惡意,也不讓別人產生痛苦;藉由以上的善行,他的來世將會出生在一個充滿平安與喜樂的世界,去體驗如色界遍淨天(天國)般的喜樂,享受天神的光彩榮耀。也就是說一個人會轉生至何處,是繫於他會作出何種業行,業力將如影隨形地伴隨著他轉世,因此,我說每一個眾生都是自己業力的繼承者,這就是所謂的白業有白報。

再者,什麼又是雜染業有雜染報呢?如果有人的行為(身、口、意)同時夾雜著善與惡,那麼他的來世將會同時感受到苦樂雜陳的處境。也就是說一個人會轉生至何處,是繫於他會作出何種業行,業力將如影隨形地伴隨著他轉世,因此,我說每一個眾生都是自己業力的繼承者,這就是所謂的雜染業有雜染報。

最後,什麼又是不苦不樂業有不可不樂報呢?如果有人的行為(身、口、意)既非善亦非惡,亦非雜染善與惡,這就是不苦不樂業有不苦不樂報。」

      當世尊解釋完後,這普那由衷的讚嘆:「太好了!大師喬達摩。太讚了!大師喬達摩。您的闡釋是如此清楚,就譬如有人扶正打翻的東西,揭露隱藏的東西;又好比對迷途者指引迷津;又好比在暗處點燃明燈,使人得以看見各種形色。我今願宣誓皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依僧伽,懇請世尊接受我為在家弟子,直到我生命結束的那一刻為止。

        散耶也同樣表達了對世尊的崇敬及皈依三寶的意願,但散耶更進一步央求世尊許可他加入僧團修行。

       世尊說:「散耶,根據僧團的法與律,外道(別的教徒)要加入僧團須有四個月的觀察期,四個月過後,如果僧團對於這名外道的身口意行都能滿意,這時才能正式授予並承認他比丘的身份。」

       散耶表明決心:「世尊,不要說是四個月,就算是四年我也願意接受考驗。」

       散耶加入僧團後,獨居、認真、精勤、自律,不到四個月他已親證最高法義,如實自知自證:「我生已盡,梵行已立,所做已辦,不受後有」。

        散耶已是一位阿羅漢。

Majjhima Nikaya 57

Kukkuravatika Sutta

The Dog-duty Ascetic

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.

From The Buddha's Words on Kamma: Four Discourses from the Middle Length Collection (WH 248), edited by Khantipalo Bhikkhu (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1993). Copyright ©1993 Buddhist Publication Society. Used with permission.


Introduction
by Bhikkhu Khantipalo

There were some strange people around in the Buddha's days believing some strange things but that is no different from our own days when people still believe the most odd off-balance ideas. In this sutta we meet some people who believed that by imitating animals they would be saved. Maybe they're still with us too!

Belief is often one thing, action another. While beliefs sometimes influence actions, for other people their beliefs are quite separate from what they do. But the Buddha says all intentional actions, whether thoughts, speech or bodily actions, however expressed, are kamma and lead the doer of them to experience a result sooner or later. In this sutta the Buddha classifies kamma into four groups:

(i) dark with a dark result,
(ii) bright with a bright result,
(iii) dark and bright with a dark and bright result,
(iv) neither dark nor bright with a neither dark nor bright result.

Dark (evil) kamma does not give a bright (happy) result, nor does bright (beneficial) kamma lead to dark (miserable) result. Kamma can be mixed, where an action is done with a variety of motives, some good, some evil. And that kind of kamma also exists which gives up attachment to and interest in the other three and so leads beyond the range of kamma.


1. Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Koliyan country: there is a town of the Koliyans called Haliddavasana.

2. Then Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, and also Seniya a naked dog duty ascetic, went to the Blessed One, and Punna the ox duty ascetic paid homage to the Blessed One and sat down at one side, while Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic exchanged greetings with the Blessed One, and when the courteous and amiable talk was finished, he too sat down at one side curled up like a dog. When Punna the ox-duty ascetic sat down, he asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"1

"Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that."

A second time... A third time Punna the ox-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya does what is hard to do: he eats his food when it is thrown on the ground. That dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"

"Well, Punna, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say 'Enough, Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that,' I shall therefore answer you.

3. "Here, Punna, someone develops the dog duty fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog-habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the dog mind fully and unstintingly, he develops dog behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of dogs. But if his view is such as this: 'By this virtue or duty or asceticism or religious life I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,' that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Punna, if his dog duty is perfected, it will lead him to the company of dogs; if it is not, it will lead him to hell."

4. When this was said, Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic wept and shed tears. Then the Blessed One told Punna, son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic: "Punna, I could not persuade you when I said, 'Enough Punna, let that be. Do not ask me that.'"

"Venerable sir, I am not weeping that the Blessed One has spoken thus. Still, this dog duty has long been taken up and practiced by me. Venerable sir, there is this Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox duty ascetic: that ox duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"

"Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that." A second time... A third time Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, there is this Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic; that ox duty has long been taken up and practiced by him. What will be his destination? What will be his future course?"

"Well, Seniya, since I certainly cannot persuade you when I say 'Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that,' I shall therefore answer you."

5. "Here, Seniya, someone develops the ox duty fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox habit fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox mind fully and unstintingly, he develops the ox behavior fully and unstintingly. Having done that, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he reappears in the company of oxen. But if his view is such as this: 'By this virtue or duty or asceticism or religious like I shall become a (great) god or some (lesser) god,' that is wrong view in his case. Now there are two destinations for one with wrong view, I say: hell or the animal womb. So, Seniya, if his ox duty is perfected, it will lead him to the company of oxen; if it is not, it will lead him to hell."

6. When this was said, Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, wept and shed tears. Then the Blessed One told Seniya, the naked dog duty ascetic: "Seniya, I could not persuade you when I said, 'Enough, Seniya, let that be. Do not ask me that.'"

"Venerable sir, I am not weeping that the Blessed One has spoken thus. Still, this ox duty has long been taken up and practiced by me. Venerable sir, I have confidence in the Blessed One thus: 'The Blessed One is capable of teaching me the Dhamma in such a way that I may abandon this ox duty and that this naked dog-duty ascetic Seniya may abandon that dog duty.'"

7. "Then, Punna, listen and heed well what I shall say."

"Yes, venerable sir," he replied. The Blessed One said this:

8. "Punna, there are four kinds of kamma proclaimed by me after realization myself with direct knowledge. What are the four? There is dark kamma with dark ripening, there is bright kamma with bright ripening, there is dark-and-bright kamma with dark-and-bright ripening, and there is kamma that is not dark and not bright with neither-dark-nor-bright ripening that conduces to the exhaustion of kamma.

9. "What is dark kamma with dark ripening? Here someone produces a (kammic) bodily process (bound up) with affliction,2 he produces a (kammic) verbal process (bound up) with affliction, he produces a (kammic) mental process (bound up) with affliction. By so doing, he reappears in a world with affliction. When that happens, afflicting contacts3 touch him. Being touched by these, he feels afflicting feelings entirely painful as in the case of beings in hell. Thus a being's reappearance is due to a being: he reappears owing to the kammas he has performed. When he has reappeared, contacts touch him. Thus I say are beings heirs of their kammas. This is called dark kamma with dark ripening.

10. "And what is bright kamma with bright ripening? Here someone produces a (kammic) bodily process not (bound up) with affliction, he produces a (kammic) verbal process not (bound up) with affliction, he produces a (kammic) mental process not (bound up) with affliction. By doing so, he reappears in a world without affliction. When that happens, unafflicting contacts touch him. Being touched by these, he feels unafflicting feelings entirely pleasant as in the case of the Subhakinha, the gods of Refulgent Glory. Thus a being's reappearance is due to a being: he reappears owing to the kammas he has performed. When he has reappeared, contacts touch him. Thus I say are beings heirs of their kammas. This is called bright kamma with bright ripening.

11. "What is dark-and-bright kamma with dark-and-bright ripening? Here someone produces a (kammic) bodily process both (bound up) with affliction and not (bound up) with affliction... verbal process... mental process both (bound up) with affliction and not (bound up) with affliction. By doing so, he reappears in a world both with and without affliction. When that happens, both afflicting and unafflicting contacts touch him. Being touched by these, he feels afflicting and unafflicting feelings with mingled pleasure and pain as in the case of human beings and some gods and some inhabitants of the states of deprivation. Thus a being's reappearance is due to a being: he reappears owing to the kammas he has performed. When he has reappeared, contacts touch him. Thus I say are beings heirs of their kammas. This is called dark-and-bright kamma with dark-and-bright ripening.

12. "What is neither-dark-nor-bright kamma with neither-dark-nor-bright ripening that leads to the exhaustion of kamma? As to these (three kinds of kamma), any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is dark with dark ripening, any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is bright with bright ripening, and any volition in abandoning the kind of kamma that is dark-and bright with dark-and-bright ripening: this is called neither-dark-nor-bright kamma with neither-dark-nor-bright ripening.

"These are the four kinds of kamma proclaimed by me after realization myself with direct knowledge."

13. When this was said, Punna, a son of the Koliyans and an ox-duty ascetic, said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by Master Gotama as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing the hidden, showing the way to one who is lost, holding up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyesight to see forms.

14. "I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life."

15. But Seniya the naked dog-duty ascetic said: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!... The Dhamma has been made clear... for those with eyesight to see forms.

16. "I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I would receive the going forth under Master Gotama and the full admission."4

17. "Seniya, one who belonged formerly to another sect and wants the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline lives on probation for four months. At the end of the four months bhikkhus who are satisfied in their minds give him the going forth into homelessness and also the full admission to the bhikkhus' state. A difference in persons has become known to me in this (probation period)."

"Venerable sir, if those who belonged formerly to another sect and want the going forth and the full admission in this Dhamma and Discipline live on probation for four months and at the end of four months bhikkhus who are satisfied in their minds give them the going forth into homelessness and the full admission to the bhikkhus' state, I will live on probation for four years and at the end of the four years let bhikkhus who are satisfied in their minds give me the going forth into homelessness and the full admission to the bhikkhus' state."

18. Seniya the naked dog duty ascetic received the going forth under the Blessed One, and he received the full admission. And not long after his full admission, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and self-controlled, the venerable Seniya by realization himself with direct knowledge here and now entered upon and abode in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the home life into homelessness. He had direct knowledge thus: "Birth is exhausted, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more of this to come."

And the venerable Seniya became one of the arahants.


Notes

1. Of births in samsara, the wandering-on in birth and death.

2. A defiled kamma expressed through the body (speech, mind).

3. Painful "touches" through eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind.

4. That is, the novice ordination and the full ordination as a bhikkhu or monk.

See also: AN IV.235; "Kamma and the Ending of Kamma" in The Wings to Awakening (Thanissaro Bhikkhu).


Revised: Sunday 2005-09-18
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/majjhima/mn-057-nt0.html

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