痲瘋病患者經

 

 

 

    本經是敘述一個名叫蘇巴達(Suppabuddha)的痲瘋病患,在聆聽佛陀的開示後便證得了初果。

    在巴利《法句經的註釋集》裡則補充記載帝釋天王曾想試探蘇巴達對三寶的信心究竟到了什麼程度,於是在空中翱翔,誘惑蘇巴達:「蘇巴達,你是一個貧民,人家給你什麼,你就得吃什麼,一生無依無靠。但我可以給你無限的財富,只要你願意背棄三寶就可以了。」

    蘇巴答卻悍然的拒絕道:「愚蠢、無恥的人!你不配跟我交談,我不是無依無靠的貧民,我有聖者所具有的七聖()財,也就是:信、戒、慚、愧、聞、施與慧。一個擁有這些財富(法財)的人, 就不能稱為貧民。」

    帝釋天王把這段對話告訴了佛陀。佛陀對帝釋天王說:「帝釋,即使有一百塊金子,甚至一千塊金子擺在蘇巴達的面前,他也絕不可能做出背棄三寶的事。」

    在本經中,佛陀解釋蘇巴達之所以今生如此的窮困潦倒,還染上痲瘋病,是因為過去前生曾惡意的羞辱過一位辟支佛。

    在巴利《法句經的註釋集》裡,佛陀則解釋了蘇巴達之所以被一頭母牛給撞死的因緣,是因為蘇巴達在過去前生曾謀殺了一名妓女,並侵占了她的財物,這名妓女死前發下了咒怨,要化為厲鬼夜叉,生生世世都跟蘇巴達索命。

    有關蘇巴達的這篇《痲瘋者經》,給予我們很多的啟示,也就是一個人不論他是貧或是富,只要他具有聖者的七聖()財,也就是:信、戒、慚、愧、聞、施、與慧,就有資格被稱為富貴中人,而不能被稱作窮人。

    此外,佛陀雖於南傳巴利增支部中說過凡人造業不是絕對「必定」受報,否則無解脫的可能性,梵行也失去意義等語(見南傳巴利英譯增支部),也就是有果就一定有因,但有因卻不一定有果。可是我們必須慎思明辨以上這段話的前提是此人非常「正精進」地勤修梵行與解脫道,如果此人不夠精進,依然放逸,仍是一名不折不扣的凡夫,尚在六道中流浪生死,那麼誠如佛陀於經、律典籍中所云:「假令經百劫,所作業不亡;因緣會遇時,果報還自受」。因為我們所造的業,不論是「善」或是「惡」,一旦因緣成熟,都終將返還至自身五蘊界處,而不會遺落在外界地、水、火、風等他處。

選譯自巴利《小部/自說經V.3

坦尼沙羅尊者英譯

喬正一中譯於西元2014/12/21八關齋戒日

    我是這樣聽聞的:

    有一次,佛陀遊方到古印度的王舍城,並暫時住在竹林精舍的松鼠園裡。

    當時,王舍城裡有一個名叫蘇巴達的痲瘋病患,不但窮困潦倒,還一身是病。

    就在世尊爲大家說法時,蘇巴達從遠處看見一大堆的人聚在一處,便以為: 「那堣@定有人在布施,也許我可以從那裡得到一些食物。」

    於是,他朝眾人處走去。

    當他趨前時,他看見世尊正在為眾人說法,他失望的意識到並沒有人在布施,但他又想到自己為什麼不也一起來聽法?

    「好吧!我也來聽法吧!」於是他便坐在一旁跟大家一起聽法。

    世尊以他心通觀察在場聽眾有誰能因聞法而見法,他看見蘇巴達坐在人群之中,便知蘇巴達有能力(足夠的波羅蜜)能在聞法後而見法。

    於是,世尊針對蘇巴達按部就班說了一段法,也就是:布施、戒德、生天之法,毀呰五欲為災患,生死為穢濁,應心生出離,稱歎無欲為妙,道品白淨。

    接著,世尊知道蘇巴達已有了歡喜心、具足心、柔軟心、堪耐心、勝上心、一向心、無疑心、無五蓋心,有能、有力堪受正法,接著便對他解說正法要,也就是「苦」、「集」、「滅」、「道」。

    這時,蘇巴達的心猶如一匹容易染色的白布,他在他的座位上即時明白了四聖諦,他領悟到:「凡有生皆歸於滅。」(因緣法)

    當蘇巴達已見法、得法,覺悟白淨之法,斷除疑惑,從此不再動搖對三寶的信心,他對佛法沒有猶豫,他對世尊的教法已得無所畏的信心,於是從座位起身,走到佛前頂禮,並宣誓:「善哉啊,善哉!世尊!就猶如有人扶正打翻的東西,揭露隱藏的東西;又好比對迷途者指引迷津;又好比在暗處點燃明燈,使人得以看見各種形色。世尊,您今日以各種技巧闡釋教法,也是如此。所以我今宣誓願皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依僧伽,懇請世尊接受我為在家弟子,直到我生命結束的那一刻為止。」

    蘇巴達因受到世尊的教導、敦促、鼓勵、激勵,於是心生歡喜、隨喜,便從座位起身,向世尊頂禮並右繞三匝後離去。

    但就在他離去不久後,他隨即被一隻帶著小牛的母牛給撞死了。

    後來,有許多比丘走到佛陀的面前,他們向佛陀頂禮後,便坐在一旁。

    他們問:「世尊,蘇巴菩達在受到世尊的教導、鼓勵、激勵之後,現在已經因意外而死亡了。我們想請問他投生到何處?他轉世到何方?」

    佛陀說:「比丘們,蘇巴達很有智慧。他如法修持,並未在法義上找碴。由於前三種的斷除,他已是初果聖者,他不會再墜入惡趣,他一定會走向解脫。」

    當世尊說完後,其中一名比丘又問:「世尊,請問是什麽樣的因緣,使蘇巴達今生如此的窮困潦倒?」

    世尊解釋:

    比丘們,過去很久以前在此王舍城內,蘇巴達的前生是一個很有錢的放貸人的兒子。

    有一天,他與跟隨從一起前往遊樂園的途中,撞見一位名叫多伽羅屍迦的辟支佛在城埵垓琚C

    當時,他心生惡意,想到:「這四處覓食的痲瘋病者到底是誰?」於是,他朝辟支佛吐痰,並粗魯地從辟支佛的左邊離去,以此羞辱辟支佛。

    因為這樣的惡業所成熟的惡果報,使他在地獄堜茖了好多年、好幾百年、好幾千年、好幾千萬年的折磨與煎熬。

    他今生雖因其它的善業得以出生在王舍城內為人,但由於該惡業所殘餘的惡果報,使他今生成爲一個窮困潦倒的痲瘋病人。

    然而,他因為波羅蜜的成熟而得以有幸遇見如來宣說法與律,因此而獲得『信』、『戒』、『聞』、『慧』等諸德,使他死後重生於善趣天界,成為三十三天諸天神的同伴,他現在已經是一位美麗與榮耀都勝過諸神的天神。」

    後來,世尊認為這件事對大家深具啟發的重要性,便誦出以下的偈語:

明眼於險處,應力求避險;

智者於世間,應常避惡業。

 

原文/

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in Rajagaha at the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels' Sanctuary. Now at that time in Rajagaha there was a leper named Suppabuddha, a poor, miserable wretch of a person. And at that time the Blessed One was sitting surrounded by a large assembly, teaching the Dhamma. Suppabuddha the leper saw the large gathering of people from afar and thought to himself, "Without a doubt, someone must be distributing staple or non-staple food over there. Why don't I go over to that large group of people, and maybe I'll get some staple or non-staple food." So he went over to the large group of people. Then he saw the Blessed One sitting surrounded by a large assembly, teaching the Dhamma. On seeing this, he realized, "There's no one distributing staple or non-staple food over here. That's Gotama the contemplative, sitting surrounded by a large assembly, teaching the Dhamma. Why don't I listen to the Dhamma?" So he sat to one side right there, [thinking,] "I, too, will listen to the Dhamma."

Then the Blessed One, having encompassed the awareness of the entire assembly with his awareness, asked himself, "Now who here is capable of understanding the Dhamma?" He saw Suppabuddha the leper sitting in the assembly, and on seeing him the thought occurred to him, "This person here is capable of understanding the Dhamma." So, aiming at Suppabuddha the leper, he gave a step-by-step talk, i.e., a talk on giving, a talk on virtue, a talk on heaven; he declared the drawbacks, degradation, & corruption of sensual passions, and the rewards of renunciation. Then when he saw that Suppabuddha the leper's mind was ready, malleable, free from hindrances, elated, & bright, he then gave the Dhamma-talk peculiar to Awakened Ones, i.e., stress, origination, cessation, & path. And just as a clean cloth, free of stains, would properly absorb a dye, in the same way, as Suppabuddha the leper was sitting in that very seat, the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye arose within him, "Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation."

Having seen the Dhamma, reached the Dhamma, known the Dhamma, gained a footing in the Dhamma, having crossed over & beyond doubt, having had no more perplexity, having gained fearlessness & independence from others with regard to the Teacher's message, he rose up from his seat and went to the Blessed One. On arrival, having bowed down to the Blessed One, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, lord! Magnificent! Just as if the Blessed One were to place upright what was overturned, to reveal what was hidden, to show the way to one who was lost, or were to carry a lamp into the dark so that those with eyes could see forms, in the same way has the Blessed One -- through many lines of reasoning -- made the Dhamma clear. I go to the Blessed One for refuge, to the Dhamma, and to the Community of monks. May the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge, from this day forward, for life."

Then Suppabuddha the leper, having been instructed, urged, roused, & encouraged by the Blessed One's Dhamma talk, delighting & approving of the Blessed One's words, got up from his seat, bowed down to the Blessed One, circumambulated him -- keeping him to his right -- and left. Not long after his departure he was attacked & killed by a cow with a young calf.

Then a large number of monks approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As they were sitting there, they said to the Blessed One, "Lord, the leper named Suppabuddha, whom the Blessed One instructed, urged, roused, & encouraged with a Dhamma talk, has died. What is his destination? What is his future state?"

"Monks, Suppabuddha the leper was wise. He practiced the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma and did not pester me with issues related to the Dhamma. With the destruction of the first three fetters, he is a stream-winner, not subject to states of deprivation, headed for self-awakening for sure."

When this was said, one of the monks said to the Blessed One, "Lord, what was the cause, what was the reason, why Suppabuddha the leper was such a poor, miserable wretch of a person?"

Once, monks, in this very Rajagaha, Suppabuddha the leper was the son of a rich money-lender. While being escorted to a pleasure park, he saw Tagarasikhi the Private Buddha going for alms in the city. On seeing him, he thought, 'Who is this leper prowling about?' Spitting and disrespectfully turning his left side to Tagarasikhi the Private Buddha, he left. As a result of that deed he boiled in hell for many years, many hundreds of years, many thousands of years, many hundreds of thousands of years. And then as a result of that deed he became a poor, miserable wretch of a person in this very Rajagaha. But on encountering the Dhamma & Discipline made known by the Tathagata, he acquired conviction, virtue, learning, relinquishment, & discernment. Having acquired conviction, virtue, learning, relinquishment, & discernment on encountering the Dhamma & Discipline made known by the Tathagata, now -- on the break-up of the body, after death -- he has reappeared in a good destination, the heavenly world, in company with the devas of the heaven of the Thirty-three. There he outshines the other devas both in beauty & in glory."

Then, on realizing the significance of that, the Blessed One on that occasion exclaimed:

A person with good eyes,
    encountering
    a treacherous, uneven place,
   would try hard to avoid it.

A wise person, in the world of life,
   should avoid
   evil deeds.