U Htin Fatt (B.A)英譯
On seeing that peta in the outskirts of the city, King
Ambasakkara of Licchavi (ruling) in Vesali in the Kingdom of
Vajji, asked the meaning of the words uttered by the former.
This man, (replied the peta), who has been implied knows no
sleep nor rest, unable to move backward or forward, nor to
enjoy the pleasures of eating, hard food or soft, or of
Although compassionate, his erstwhile relatives, his
familiar acquaintances and his affectionate friends could
not see him anymore. To all appearances he had been forsaken
by all people.
He who loses life loses friends. When friends realize that
he has been deprived of fortune, they desert him, (even in
Only when they can hope for advantage from him, would they
keep him company. He whose fortune is in ascendancy has many
Miserable is he, deprived of all fortunes, with body
bloodstained and pierced by stakes. Life will expire with
him, today or tomorrow, even as the dew on a blade of grass
And yet, Yakkha, (asked the King of Licchavi), why did you
say: "My kin! Keep yourself alive! Life alone is better!" to
this man suffering misery with his body impaled with a stake
made of neem-wood?
O King of Licchavi! I remember him as a relative in my
pervious existence. Seeing him, pity arose in me. May not
this man who committed evil fall into niraya, the abode of
O King of Licchavi! When this man (accustomed to do evil)
dies, he will be reborn in Ussadaniraya, the abode of
punishment peopled by a multitude of evil-doers, horrible,
extremely hot, severe and terrifying.
Miserable, severe and horrible, indeed, is niraya, the abode
of punishment! Acute indeed, is the suffering in niraya to
which this man is destined! This stake possesses more
virtues than that niraya does.
If he hears my words he would feel that death is at hand and
would (desire to) give up life. So I do not (want to) speak
anything in his presence as it occurs to me that he should
not die at this moment,(said the peta).
Now that we have come to know all about this impaled person,
let me ask you some other question. Let me do so with your
permission. Be not angry with us, (said the king).
From the very beginning I feel obliged to give you the
permission. I have the least desire to answer the skeptics.
But since you appear to be believing, ask me, regardless of
my unwillingness or otherwise. I shall answer you to best of
my ability, (said the peta).
I can believe all when I see all with my own eyes. But if I
fail to be taken in by all what I see for myself, would
you,Yakkha, be putting me under restraining? (Thus asked the
King of Licchavi).
Be true to your words, King of Licchavi! I shall relate to
you all what I know whether you have heard it or no
(before). Have faith in my words since you really desire to
hear them without the least ill intent, (said the peta).
To the impaled person you went riding on a white horse duly
adorned. It is a wonderful horse, beautiful to look at. What
is the kamma-action that brings about this result? (Thus
asked the King)
A muddy pool there was in the road in the middle of the town
of Vesali. Inspired by faith (in doing merit) I took the
white skull of an ox and laid it across the pool. Walking on
this skull-bridge, myself and others could cross
over the muddy pool. As a result of that kamma-action, I
obtained this mode of conveyance, the horse, wonderful and
beautiful to look at, (said the peta).
Your beauty radiates in all directions while the fragrance
(of your body) pervades throughout the environs. You have
acquired the supernatural power of a yakkha. But you go
naked. What is the kamma-action that gives you this
result?(Thus asked the King).
O King of Licchavi! My mind is always rendered clear by
faith (in the dhamma), being free from rancour. With gentle
and mild speech I approach the people. This beauty, always
radiant and divine, is the result of that kamma-action.
O King of Licchavi! With faith in my heart I speak for
those, renowned and praiseworthy for their firm
establishment in the dhamma. This divine fragrance is the
result of that kamma-action.
In playfulness, without any ill intent, I snatched away
(their) clothing lying on the high ground and hid them while
friends were bathing in the bathing place. Hence I now go
naked and lead a life of destitution, (said the peta).
When one does evil just for the sake of amusement, this is
the kamma-result. What can be said of the kamma-result of
him who commits evil seriously with no intention to amuse
himself? (Thus asked the King of Licchavi).
Those who bear ill-will and commits depravities in words or
deeds are undoubtedly destined to niraya, the abode of
punishment, on the dissolution of their bodies after death.
But those inclined to a happy destination enjoy giving alms
with a propensity to serve others; and they decidedly go to
that happy destination on the dissolution of their bodies
after death, (said the peta).
You have revealed to me the categories of good and bad
results of good and bad actions. But how can I believe in
the truth of good and bad kamma-results? On what evidence
shall I base my belief in them? (So asked the King
O King of Licchavi! I have revealed to you the categories of
good and bad results of good and bad actions. Seeing and
hearing (the nature of) good and bad kamma-results, have
faith in their existence. In the absence of good and bad
kamma-actions, how can there be any good or bad
O King of Licchavi! If, in this world, there exist no good
or bad kamma-action done by beings, there can be no beings
in this world destined to happy or miserable abodes, nor can
there be those who are inferior or superior.
But in this world there are beings who commit good or evil
for one reason or another. Therefore, there are, in this
world, beings destined to happy or miserable abodes just as
there are those inferior or superior.
Now it has been said that there exist both good and bad
kamma-results conducive respectively to the enjoyment of
happiness or to the affliction of suffering. He who gets the
fruit of happiness go to the abode of devas to enjoy it; but
the foolish, not realizing the nature of both action and the
result of action, gets cooked in niraya, the abode of
O King of Licchavi! I am deficient in past kamma actions
that can give the fruits of clothing, shelter, food and
drinks. And I have none who give alms (to samanas and
brahmanas) dedicated to me. Therefore do I go naked, leading
a life of misery, (said the peta).
ls there, Yakkha, any cause by which you can get clothes? If
there is any, tell me, and I shall listen to (your) account
that bears credence, (said the King).
In this city of Vesali there is a bhikkhu by the name of
Kappitaka. He practises jhana, possesses morality, deserves
to be respected, attains deliverance from defilements,
controls his senses and keeps himself in restraint (in
accordance with the precepts). He has found peace having
realized the right view regarding the fruition of the Path
of an arahat. He is gentle, versed in all dhammas,
well-speaking, goodfeatured, having learnt scriptures by
heart, impartial in speech, like unto a field of merit,
dwelling in loving-kindness that transcends all defilements
and deserving of noble gifts (made by men and devas). He is
peaceful (with the exhaustion of defilements), unclouded by
wrong views, free from suffering, having extinguished
craving, delivered from rebirths, with the stake of lust
extracted, with no pride of ego, not given to crookedness,
having discarded the substrata of being (such as defilements
and mental formations), having reached the end of evil
conditions (of craving, pride and wrong views) and having
gained the three knowledges, radiant in the light of
transcendental wisdom. Remaining inconspicuous (for lack of
ambitions for celebrity), it is not easy for people to
appreciate his virtues
(of morality, concentration and knowledge). Among the
citizens of Vajji, he is known as a muni, sage, while devas
recognize him as the bhikkhu who is devoid of desire,
possessing the wholesome dhammas (of morality) and
roaming about in the world of sentient beings. If you give
alms of one or two pairs of robes to that Kappitaka Thera in
dedication to my welfare, and if he accepts the gift, you
may see me clothed, (said the peta).
That Kappitaka Thera might be able to dispel my doubt and
take out the stake of wrong views (I entertain). Where is
the samana living, and how can we go to see him? (that asked
By virtue of his residence in Kapinaccana surrounded by a
multitude of devas, he is rightly known as Kappitaka, who
preaches with diligence the dhamma, the property of his
teacher, the Buddha, (said the peta).
Now I shall go and do as you say, I shall offer alms of a
pair of robes to Kappitaka. He might accept it. I want to
see you duly clothed, (said the king).
I implore you, King of Licchavi! Go not to him at the wrong
moment. It is not in the nature of things that a king like
you should approach him at the wrong moment. Go to him only
in the morning and meet him sitting in solitude, (said the
Saying, " Very well," the king of Licchavi returned to his
own country, accompanied by his retinue. When he arrived at
Vesali, he rested in his own palace.
At the end of that day, on the morrow after, having attended
to his domestic chores, taken the bath and had drinking
water, he ordered at the opportune moment his servants to
choose eight pairs of robes from the chest.
As that King of Licchavi came to the place, he found the
samana, endowed with peace of mind having brought
defilements to cessation, return from his round of alms and
sit at the root of a tree.
Then he approached the bhikkhu and asked about the latter’s
health and well-being saying, "Venerable Sir! I am the King
of Licchavi of Vesali and known by all men as Ambasakkara,
King of Licchavi. "Venerable Sir! Kindly accept my gift of
eight pairs of robes which I now offer you in alms. I have
come here for that purpose. May the Venerable bhikkhu be
kind enough to make me rejoice in this."
Samana and brahmanas give a wide berth to your palace. Bowls
are usually broken in your house; and monks outer garments
get torn. Besides, bhikkhu meet their fall headforemost (on
being struck) by your feet which is verily like unto an axe.
Samanas who renounce the world are being thus victimized by
your actions. You have never given even that quantity of oil
that drips from a blade of grass. You have never shown the
way to one who gets lost. You even deprive a blind man of
his walking stick. You have been miserly and wicked. What
advantage do you expect from you giving alms together with
us? (Thus asked the bhikkhu).
Venerable Sir! I admit all what you have imputed to me. I
victimize samanas and brahmanas in jest. I have no evil
intent. But, Venerable Sir, his playfulness itself is my
Venerable Sir! The yakkha, having brought about evil with
his playfulness, became afflicted with the misery of
inadequate prosperity. In the flowers of youth, he had only
nakedness for his portion. What can be more miserable for
him than that nakedness?
Having seen him, I became remorseful, and because of that
reason I make this gift of alms. Be kind enough to accept
the eight pairs of robes, May (the merits accruing from)
this alms-giving take their effect on the yakkha! (Thus said
The virtues of alms-giving are praised in many ways (by the
Buddha and others like him). May (benefits) remain
unexhausted with you who give! I accept the eight pairs of
robes. May the result of this noble alms-giving reach the
yakkha! (Thus said the bhikkhu).
Then the King of Licchavi washed (his hands, feet and mouth)
and offered the eight pairs of robes to the bhikkhu who
accepted them. Then they saw the yakkha clothed in robes.
They saw him appearing beautiful in sandalwood paint, riding
a thoroughbred, adorning himself in good robes that he wore,
endowed with the great power of a yakkha and surrounded by
Having seen him, the King of Licchavi became glad, joyous
and delighted and looked amiable. And, having seen for
himself face to face the work of kamma (actions) that
produces immediate results, he approached him and
said:"Yakkha! I shall give alms to samanas and brahmanas. I
have nothing which I would not give. You have been of
immense help to me."
O King of Licchavi! Dedicating to my welfare, you have made
gifts of robes in a way; and such giving is not futile. Let
me, who is a deva, bear witness to this with you, who are a
human being, (said the yakkha).
You are, Yakkha, my refuge, my kin, my support and my
friend, besides being a deva (Worthy of my reverence). I
raised my hands in supplication. I desire to see you again,
(said the King).
O King of Licchavi! if you happen to be lacking in faith (in
the dhamma) and miserly with a mind inclined to taking up
wrong practices, you shall not be able to seen me. Even if
you happen to see me, I shall not speak with you. If,
however, you have respect for the dhamma, finding joy in
alms-giving, willing to serve others and behaving like unto
a well (that satisfies thirst) to samanas and brahmanas, you
shall see me.
If, Your Majesty, I see you (in that condition), I shall
speak with you. On account of the fact that we came to the
impaled person, we have become witnesses. l am of opinion
that the stake should be taken out from (the body of) this
We testify for each other. If this man escapes impalement at
this instant he would also escape punishment in niraya when
he conducts himself with due regard to the dhamma, The
kamma-action2 that ripens in the next life is rendered
ineffective although other kamma-actions3 that are to ripen
in successive lives thereafter would run their due course.
O King of Licchavi! At a suitable time, go to Kappitaka
Thera, offer alms together with him, and, having approached
him, ask him yourself verbally. He will give you the answer
relating to the matter.
Approach him and ask him what you desire to know, but ask
him not with ill intent. He will tell you all that he knows
whether you have heard of it before or no, (said the peta).
Thereupon that King of Licchavi made a secret pact with the
yakkha, and, having place himself in the position of a
witness, wended his way to the assembly of the kings of
Licchavi clan and addressed the gathering.
Friends! Harken to the one word that I am going to say.
Grant me a boon: it will make for benefit. For twenty-eight
nights has this man been impaled by (order of) the Kings of
Licchavi clan who decided to mete out punishment to him for
his barbarous crimes. That being so, he cannot be pronounced
either alive or dead. So I shall have him released. I ask
the permission of this assembly to let me carry out my
desire, (said the King of Licchavi).
"O King Ambasakkara of Licchavi!. Set him or any other free
this very instant. Who would protest you when you are
dealing justice? You know your duty: and so, do it!" Thus
did the assembly give its permission to the King of Licchavi
to do as he desired.
(Then) that King Ambasakkara of Licchavi went to the place
(where the man was impaled) and released him immediately.
And saying, "My good fellow! Be not afraid! He caused
physicians to attend (to his wounds).
Then, when it suited him, he approached Bhikkhu Kappitaka
and offered alms together with the latter. For the sake of
(hearing) the reasons to be revealed by the bhikkhu, he
himself asked the question verbally.
For twenty-eight nights this man has been impaled by (order
of) the kings of Licchavi clan who decided to mete out
punishment for his barbarous crimes. That being so, he
cannot be pronounced either alive or dead. I have now gone
to that man and released him, Venerable Sir, (in compliance
with) the advice of that yakkha. If there exists any reason
by which he will not go down to niraya, the abode of
punishment, what is that reason?
Venerable Sir! If there exists any reason, pray, tell us. We
shall take your word for it if it is worthy of credence. Is
it not, in this world, that kamma (action) becomes annulled?
Or, is it that kamma (action) is destroyed? (Thus asked the
That man, who is vigilant in the practice of the dhamma,
with respectfulness, day and night, may escape from going
down to niraya, the abode of punishment. The kammaaction
that ripens in the next life will be rendered ineffective
although other kamma-actions that are to ripen in successive
lives thereafter would run their due course.
Venerable Sir! I have known the result accruing to the man.
Now, have compassion on me. If there exists means by which
you, whose wisdom is as solid as the earth, can admonish and
instruct me, pray, do so, using those means,(said the King).
O King of Licchavi! From today on, stand by the Buddha, the
Dhamma and the Sangha as your refuge with a clear mind of
faith (in them). In the same way be established in the
observance of the five precepts without ever breaking them.
In this world, from this very moment, abstain from taking
life, from taking what is not given, from taking intoxicants
and from speaking falsehood. Be content with your ownwife.
Take upon yourself this precept, noble, eightfold, blameless
and conducive to happiness.
O King of Licchavi! Give robes, meals, medicines, beds,
food, hard and soft, drinks, clothing and residences to
samanas and brahmanas accomplished in righteousness and
inspired by intense faith (in alms-giving).
Satisfy bhikkhus, endowed with morality and having dispelled
lust and gained knowledge, with food and drinks.
If you do so, merits will multiply themselves forever.
If you are thus vigilant in the practice of the dhamma, with
respectfulness, day and night, you will escape from niraya,
the abode of punishment. The kamma-action that ripens in the
next life will be rendered ineffective although other kamma
actions that are to ripen in successive lives thereafter
would run their due course, (said the bhikkhu in reply).
From today on I stand by the Buddha, The Dhamma and the
Sangha as my refuge with a clear mind of faith (in them).
And I shall remain established in the observance of the five
precepts without ever breaking them.
In this world I will abstain from taking life, from taking
what is not given, from taking intoxicants and from speaking
falsehood. I will be content with my wife. Furthermore I
will take upon myself this precept, noble, eightfold,
blameless and conducive to happiness.
I will give robes, meals, medicines, beds, food, hard and
soft, drinks, clothing and residences, with intense faith
(in alms-giving), to bhikkhus endowed with morality, having
dispelled lust and gained knowledge. I tremble not. I shall
take delight in being under the wing of the Buddha’s
King Ambasakkara of Licchavi was such that he became one
among the disciples in Vesali (who took refuge in the Three
Gems). With due respect he served the bhikkhus of the Order
with faith and confidence and meekness.
The impaled person became free from sickness, unencumbered
and happy and entered the Order. With the help of Bhikkhu
Kappitaka both he and the King of Licchavi attained the
fruition of the Path of a stream-winner.
Such is the advantage derived from associating with men of
virtue in whom all defilements have been extinguished with
the attainment of wisdom (both mundane and extramundane).
The impaled person entered the Path of the fruition of an
arahat while the King of Licchavi entered the Path of the
fruition of a stream-winner.