賓頭盧尊者的神通

        Mahaka 就是北傳經典裡的賓頭盧尊者,以神通著名。這篇經文相當有趣,古印度沒有電風扇、冷氣等現代產品,所以一般人一遇夏季便難耐酷暑的煎熬。如果氣候太過炎熱,令人難以專心修行,對於修行將形成障礙,因此佛陀在特殊情況下特許有神通的阿羅漢可以施展神通呼風喚雨,消除悶熱。

        但是,佛陀不允許比丘以表演神通取悅俗人,甚至為此制訂戒律,讓我們一起相賞vina精彩的譯文。

相應部 41:4

<Mahaka Sutta>

有關於尊者Mahaka

優婆塞 彭育仁譯於佛曆2548101

 

      有一段時間,一大群長老比丘居住在靠近 Macchikasanda 的野芒果林。當時,質多羅長者(Citta)前去拜訪他們。到達之後,向比丘們頂禮,就坐在一旁。在他坐定之後,對比丘們說:「尊者們,願諸位長老比丘能接受我明天的飲食供養。」

    諸位長老比丘默然接受他的邀請。當質多羅長者知道諸長老比丘已經默許之後,就從座位站起來,向比丘們頂禮,右繞三匝保持尊者在他的右邊以示尊敬就離開了。

    當黑夜過去,諸位長老比丘在黎明即穿好僧袍帶著缽以及外衣便前往質多羅的住處,到達之後,就坐在已經準備好的位子。質多羅長者,親手把那混著酥油、美味的牛奶米飯,放入比丘們的缽中,盡心地服待他們。當諸位長老比丘用完餐並且清洗完他們的缽以及手之後,便從座位中起來而離去。質多羅長者說:「剩下的就留著吧!」便跟隨在長老比丘之後。

    當時天氣非常悶熱,諸位長老比丘都汗如雨下,好像早上吃的食物都從體內熔了出來。當時,尊者 Mahaka—他是其中戒臘最低的比丘,對其他長老比丘說:「諸位尊者,如果此時,能來陣涼風、來個烏雲、下個雨應該是很不錯的,你們覺得如何呢?」

    「是的,吾友 Mahaka,如果此時,能來陣涼風、來個烏雲、下個雨應該是很不錯的。」

    於是,尊者 Mahaka 便入定,展現神通,使得涼風徐徐、烏雲密布、並且下起雨來。這件事使得質多羅長者深受震撼:「在僧團中最年幼的比丘就具備如此的神通力!(更別說是其他的長老比丘了)」

    當已經到達寺院之後,尊者 Mahaka 對其他長老比丘說:「諸位尊者,這樣子足夠了嗎?」

    「吾友 Mahaka,你所做的、你所提供的,已經足夠了。」(於是尊者 Mahaka 便使用神通使風、雲、雨消失)

    於是比丘們便回到他們各自的住處,而尊者 Mahaka 也回到他自己的小屋。質多羅長者跟隨著尊者 Mahaka,到尊者的住處之後,向尊者頂禮,坐在一旁。當他坐定之後,便對尊者說:「如果尊者、大師 Mahaka 能為我展現超凡的神力、不可思議的神通力的話,那真是太好了!」

    「好的。長者,請將你的外衣放在陽台上,並疊上一捆青草。」

    「就照你所說,尊者。」質多羅長者便將外衣放在陽台上,並疊上一捆青草。

    於是尊者 Mahaka 走進小屋並將門帶上,進入禪定,發展神通,使得一道劇熱的光束穿過門上的鑰匙孔,將門外的青草燒成灰燼卻沒有損及外衣。

    質多羅長者,當他抖動他的外衣(發現完好無缺)時,站在那兒,一臉驚愕。尊者 Mahaka 走出門外說道:「長者,這樣足夠了嗎?」

    「尊者 Mahaka,你所做的、你所提供的,已經足夠了。願大師 Mahaka 能喜歡住在Macchikasanda 這堛熙巨~果林,願我能盡形壽為尊者提供衣服、食物、住所、以及醫藥的供養。」

    「長者,你能這樣說很好。」

    之後,尊者 Mahaka 在整理好他的小屋後,帶著他的缽以及僧袍,離開了 Macchikasanda。當他離開 Macchikasanda 之後,就永遠不再回來。

Mahaka Sutta

註:比丘的戒律禁止比丘對在家人展現神通。我們無法知道經典所提的這件事是發生在這條戒律制定之前還是之後,但是這故事顯示出:如果尊者 Mahaka 展現神通一事在在家人當中廣為流傳,他們將會向尊者要求表演更多的神通,這將會為他帶來苦惱,使他永無安寧。同時,他也將因此而得到在家人更多的供養,也許會使得其他比丘的供養相對變少。這就是為何尊者永遠離開的理由。

 

英譯請見:http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/samyutta/sn41-004.html

Samyutta Nikaya XLI.4

Mahaka Sutta

About Mahaka

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only.


On one occasion a large number of senior monks were living near Macchikasanda in the Wild Mango Grove. Then Citta the householder went to them and, on arrival, having bowed down to them, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to them: "Venerable sirs, may the senior monks acquiesce to tomorrow's meal from me."

The senior monks acquiesced by silence. Then Citta the householder, sensing the senior monks' acquiescence, got up from his seat and, having bowed down to them, circumambulated them -- keeping them to his right -- and left.

When the night had passed, the senior monks put on their robes in the early morning and -- taking their bowls & outer robes -- went to Citta's residence. There they sat down on the appointed seats. Then Citta the householder, with his own hand, served & satisfied them with exquisite milk-rice mixed with ghee. When the senior monks had finished eating and had rinsed their bowls & hands, they got up from their seats and left. Citta the householder, having said, "Give away the rest," followed behind the senior monks.

Now on that occasion it was hot & sweltering. The senior monks went along with their bodies melting, as it were, from the meal they had finished. And on that occasion Ven. Mahaka was the most junior of all the monks in that Community. He said to the senior monk: "Wouldn't it be nice, venerable elder, if a cool wind were to blow, and there were a thundering cloud, and rain would fall in scattered drops?"

"Yes, friend Mahaka, that would be nice..."

Then Ven. Mahaka willed a psychic feat such that a cool wind blew, a thundering cloud developed, and the rain fell in scattered drops. The thought occurred to Citta the householder, "Such is the psychic power of the most junior of all the monks in this Community!"

Then when Ven. Mahaka reached the monastery/park, he said to the senior monk, "Is that enough, venerable sir?"

"That's enough, friend Mahaka -- what you have done, what you have offered."

Then the monks went to their separate dwellings, and Ven. Mahaka went to his.

Then Citta the householder went to Ven. Mahaka and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to him, "It would be good, venerable sir, if Master Mahaka would show me a superior human attainment, a miracle of psychic power."

"In that case, householder, spread out your upper robe on the porch and put a pile of grass on it."

Responding, "As you say, venerable sir," Citta the householder spread out his upper robe on the porch and put a pile of grass on it.

Then Ven. Mahaka, having entered his dwelling and bolted the door, willed a psychic feat such that flame shot through the keyhole and the space around the door, burning up the grass but not the robe.

Then Citta the householder, having shaken out the robe, stood to one side -- in awe, his hair standing on end. Ven. Mahaka came out of his dwelling and said, "Is that enough, householder?"

"That's enough, venerable sir -- what you have done, what you have offered. May Master Mahaka delight in the charming Wild Mango Grove at Macchikasanda. I will be responsible for your robes, almsfood, lodgings, & medicinal requisites."

"That is admirably said, householder."

Then Ven. Mahaka -- having set his lodging in order and taking his bowl & robes -- left Macchikasanda. And in leaving Macchikasanda, he was gone for good and never returned.[1]


Note

1. A rule in the Culavagga (Cv V.8.2) forbids monks from displaying feats of psychic power to lay people. There is no way of knowing whether the incident in this sutta predated or postdated the formulation of that rule, but this story illustrates the reason for that rule: If word of Ven. Mahaka's display of psychic power became known among lay people, they would pester him for more displays and he would know no peace. At the same time, he would attract their alms, perhaps to the detriment of the other monks. That's why he had to leave for good. [Go back]

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