有關尊者Ratthapala(節錄)

 

中部 82

<Ratthapala Sutta >

優婆塞彭育仁譯於佛曆25481012

 

……當時 Koravya 國王對著他的獵場看守人說:「把 Migacira 歡喜園整理一下,我將去那兒看看美麗的園林。」

 

獵場看守人回答道:「就如您所說,陞下。」當他在整理 Migacira 園時,看到了尊者 Ratthapala 這一天都坐在某棵樹的樹蔭之下。當看到尊者後,他便去對國王說:「陞下,Migacira 園已經整理好了。您過去常高度推崇的 Ratthapala 族人也就是 Thullakotthita 這堭琲齯坐l現在就在那兒,今天就坐在某棵樹的樹蔭之下。」

 

「若是這樣的話,我親愛的獵場看守人,今天就別管歡喜園的事了,我現在要去向大師 Ratthapala 致上我的敬意。」

 

於是國王說道:「把那些已準備好的餐點全都拿走。」國王便將華麗的車子套上馬具,坐上一輛車子,由其他的車輛隨同,以國王出巡的陣仗,便從 Thullakotthita 出發,前往拜見尊者 Ratthapala。在與尊者禮貌地問候之後,國王便站在一旁。當他站在一旁時,便對尊者說:「願大師 Ratthapala 能坐在這由象皮所製的毯子上。」

 

「不要緊,偉大的國王,你就坐在那兒,我則坐在自己的位子上。」

 

因此國王 Koravya 就坐在已準備好的位子上。當他坐定之後,對尊者 Ratthapala 說:「有些人,當他們遭受到這四種損失時,便剃除他們的頭髮及鬍鬚,穿上赭色的僧袍,離開在家的生活,出家修行。是那四種損失呢?它們是:失去青春、失去健康、失去財富、以及失去親人…等等。但是,大師 Ratthapala 並沒有遭受到這四種損失中的任何一種,到底是因為您瞭解到、看到了或聽到了什麼,才使得大師 Ratthapala 會離開在家的生活,出家修行呢?」

 

「偉大的國王啊,是因為這個由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說,四種有關法(真理)的總論的緣故。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這四種法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。是那四種法呢?」

 

「『這世界就像洪水將任何東西沖走一般,是不永琲滿C』這是由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的第一項有關法的總論。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「『這世界沒有任何庇護,沒有任何人能保護。』這是由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的第二項有關法的總論。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「『這世界是無法擁有的,人死後將留下所有財產,什麼都帶不走。』這是由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的第三項有關法的總論。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「『這世界是無法滿足的、貪得無厭的,是貪求渴愛的奴隸。』這是由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的第四項有關法的總論。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,就是這四種,由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的有關法的總論。在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「大師 Ratthapala,你說:『這世界就像洪水將任何東西沖走一般,是不永琲滿C』請問,這句話的意義要怎麼去了解呢?」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:當你還是二十或是二十五歲時,是一個騎象的專家、騎馬的專家、駕駛戰車的專家、射箭的專家、以及刀術的專家;當時你是否手腳強壯、經驗豐富並且適於作戰呢?」

 

「是的,大師 Ratthapala,當我還是二十或是二十五歲時,是一個騎象的專家、騎馬的專家、駕駛戰車的專家、射箭的專家、以及刀術的專家;當時的我手腳強壯、經驗豐富並且適於作戰。似乎我有著超凡的神力,就力量方面,我找不到任何人可以和我匹敵。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:你現在是否還是像以前一樣,手腳強壯、經驗豐富並且適於作戰呢?」

 

「完全不是,大師 Ratthapala。現在的我是一個虛弱的老人,年紀大了,接近生命的終點,已經八十歲了。有時候,當我想把腳移到這堙A它卻不聽使喚地移到那堜O!」

 

「偉大的國王啊,這就是為什麼知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺會如此說:『這世界就像洪水將任何東西沖走一般,是不永琲滿C』在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「真是太奇妙了!大師 Ratthapala,真是太驚人了!這個由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的:『這世界就像洪水將任何東西沖走一般,是不永琲滿C』是說得多麼的好啊!因為這世界的確就像洪水將任何東西沖走一般,大師 Ratthapala啊,它的確是不永琲滿C」

 

「此外,在朝廷當中,有象軍、騎兵、戰車部隊、以及步兵,他們都可以保護我們免於危險。但是尊者你卻說:『這世界沒有任何庇護,沒有任何人能保護。』請問,這句話的意義要怎麼去了解呢?」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:你是否曾有過夙疾復發的經驗呢?」

 

「有的,大師 Ratthapala。我曾經有過夙疾復發,當時,我的朋友、醫生、親戚、家屬圍繞著我說道:『這次 Koravya 國王將要死了,這次 Koravya 國王將要死了。』」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:你可以對那些朋友、醫生、親戚、家屬說:『我的朋友、醫生、親戚、家屬啊,我命令你們:所有在場的人,和我一起分擔這個疼痛,使我的痛苦能減輕一點!』請問,你有辦法這樣做嗎?還是你必須獨自忍受這個痛苦呢?」

 

「噢!沒辦法,大師 Ratthapala。我無法對那些朋友、醫生、親戚、家屬說:『我的朋友、醫生、親戚、家屬啊,我命令你們:所有在場的人,和我一起分擔這個疼痛,使我的痛苦能減輕一點!』我必須獨自忍受這個痛苦!」

 

「偉大的國王啊,這就是為什麼知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺會如此說:『這世界沒有任何庇護,沒有任何人能保護。』在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「真是太奇妙了!大師 Ratthapala,真是太驚人了!這個由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的:『這世界沒有任何庇護,沒有任何人能保護。』是說得多麼的好啊!因為這世界的確沒有任何庇護,大師 Ratthapala啊,它的確沒有任何人能保護。」

 

「此外,在這國家之中,有大量的黃金、白銀藏在地底下以及國庫,但是尊者你卻說:『這世界是無法擁有的,人死後將留下所有財產,什麼都帶不走。』請問,這句話的意義要怎麼去了解呢?」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢,現在的你可以盡情地享受五欲的快樂,你是否可以如此說:『就算在死後,我也將能如同現在一般,盡情地享受五欲的快樂』呢?還是,當你根據你的業行死亡之後,這些財富將會落入其他人的手中呢?」

 

「噢!沒辦法,大師 Ratthapala。我無法如此說:『就算在死後,我也將能如同現在一般,盡情地享受五欲的快樂。』當我根據我的業行死亡之後,這些財富將會落入其他人的手中。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,這就是為什麼知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺會如此說:『這世界是無法擁有的,人死後將留下所有財產,什麼都帶不走。』在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「真是太奇妙了!大師 Ratthapala,真是太驚人了!這個由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的:『這世界是無法擁有的,人死後將留下所有財產,什麼都帶不走。』是說得多麼的好啊!因為這世界的確是無法擁有的,大師 Ratthapala啊,當人死後,將留下所有財產,什麼都帶不走。」

 

「此外,大師 Ratthapala,你說:『這世界是無法滿足的、貪得無厭的,是貪求渴愛的奴隸。』請問,這句話的意義要怎麼去了解呢?」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:你是否現在統治著 Kuru這繁榮的國家呢?」

 

「是的,大師 Ratthapala。我現在統治著 Kuru這繁榮的國家。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:假定有一個值得信賴、可靠的親信要從東方回來,當他回來之後對你說:『陞下,如您所知,我從東方回來。我在東方看到一個大國,興盛以及繁榮,人口稠密;具有許多象軍、許多騎兵、許多戰車部隊、以及許多步兵。那兒有許多的象牙藝品,許多加工過及未加工過的金銀;而且有許多迷人的女人。如果運用國王現有的武力,您將有機會征服這個國家。發動戰爭吧!偉大的國王!』您會怎麼做呢?」

 

「大師 Ratthapala,當我征服它之後,我將會統治它。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,你認為怎麼樣呢:假定有一個值得信賴、可靠的親信要從西方回來…從北方回來…從南方回來…從大海的其他地方回來,當他回來之後對你說:『陞下,如您所知,我從大海的其他地方回來。我在那兒看到一個大國,興盛以及繁榮,人口稠密;具有許多象軍、許多騎兵、許多戰車部隊、以及許多步兵。那兒有許多的象牙藝品,許多加工過及未加工過的金銀;而且有許多迷人的女人。如果運用國王現有的武力,您將有機會征服這個國家。發動戰爭吧!偉大的國王!』您會怎麼做呢?」

 

「大師 Ratthapala,當我征服它之後,我同樣將會統治它。」

 

「偉大的國王啊,這就是為什麼知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺會如此說:『這世界是無法滿足的、貪得無厭的,是貪求渴愛的奴隸。』在瞭解到、看到以及聽聞到這項法之後,我便離開在家的生活,出家修行。」

 

「真是太奇妙了!大師 Ratthapala,真是太驚人了!這個由知見具足的世尊、阿羅漢、等正覺所說的:『這世界是無法滿足的、貪得無厭的,是貪求渴愛的奴隸。』是說得多麼的好啊!因為這世界的確是無法滿足的,大師 Ratthapala啊,它的確是貪得無厭的,是貪求渴愛的奴隸。」

 

 這就是尊者 Ratthapala 所說。當說法結束後,尊者後如此說道:

 

「在這世界上

  擁有財富的人,

  由於愚癡,

  不懂得利用所賺得的財寶,

  用於布施。

  充滿著貪婪,

  他們將財寶藏匿,

  欲求更多的感觀享受。

 

  一個具有權力的國王,

  征服了世界,

  統治著地球,

  遠至海的邊際,

  但是他仍不滿足,

  想要從海岸邊

  更延伸出去。

 

  國王以及其他人

  許多許多的人

  帶著不滿足、無厭的

  欲求走入死亡。

  他們離開了軀體,

  仍然不滿足於

  世間的五欲享樂。

 

  他的親人因此而痛哭,

  呼天搶地,哭道:

  『噢、唉!我們的至愛已死去!』

  將他抬出去吧,

  給他蓋上一匹布,

  將他放在柴堆上,

  把他給燒了。

 

  燃燒著,用樹枝撥弄著火花,

  現在他只擁有一匹布,

  過去所擁有的財產都離他而去。

  對於已死去的人來說,

  他並沒有任何庇護,

  沒有親戚、朋友或同伴。

 

  在他死了之後,

  只有他的業陪伴著他,

他的繼承人繼承了他的財產,

沒有任何財富跟隨著他,

沒有小孩、妻子、擁有權以及財產。

 

長壽無法用金錢買到,

青春無法靠財富維持,

智者說:

生命是一無所有,

是無常的、

一定會變化的。

 

不論富人還是窮人

一定都會死亡,

不論愚者還是智者

也必定走向死亡。

然而,愚者因愚蠢而死,

智者不會畏懼死亡。

 

藉由培養智慧

這遠勝於財富,

對那些不具有智慧的人,

他們從此生流轉到他生,

由於愚癡,

做出惡行。

 

從子宮到子宮,

從此世到他世,

他不斷輪迴著,

從這兒到那兒。

那些智慧弱者,

從子宮到子宮,

從此世到他世。

 

就像一個邪惡的小偷,

在闖空門時被捉住,

被自己的惡行所毀滅,

那些行惡的人,

在身壞命終之後,

投生在他世,

同樣被自己惡行所毀。

 

感觀享樂

如此繽紛、迷人及甜美

用各式各樣的方法誘惑心。

因為看到了感觀享樂的壞處:

國王啊!這就是我出家的原因。

 

就像水果成熟後一定會掉落,

人們不論年輕或是年老

在身壞命終之時也會墮入惡道。

因為看到了感觀享樂的壞處:

國王啊!這就是我出家的原因。

出家的生活,

必定是比在家來得好。」

 

 

英譯請見:http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/majjhima/mn-082x-tb0.html

Majjhima Nikaya 82

Ratthapala Sutta

About Ratthapala

(excerpt)

Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.
For free distribution only

 

…Then King Koravya said to his gamekeeper: "Clean up the Migacira pleasure garden. I am going there to see the beautiful grounds."

"As you say, your majesty," the gamekeeper responded to the king. As he was cleaning up Migacira he saw Ven. Ratthapala sitting in the shade of a certain tree for the day's abiding. On seeing him, he went to the king and said, "Migacira has been cleaned up for you, your majesty. And the clansman Ratthapala — the son of the leading clan in this Thullakotthita, of whom you have often spoken highly — is there, sitting in the shade of a certain tree for the day's abiding."

"In that case, my dear gamekeeper, never mind about the pleasure garden for today. I am now going to pay my respects to that Master Ratthapala."

Then, saying, "Give away all the staple and non-staple foods that have been prepared," King Koravya had auspicious vehicles harnessed. Mounting an auspicious vehicle he set out from Thullakotthita accompanied by other auspicious vehicles in full royal pomp to see Ven. Ratthapala. Going as far by vehicle as the ground would permit, he dismounted and went to Ven. Ratthapala, accompanied by many eminent members of his court. On arrival, he exchanged courteous greetings with Ven. Ratthapala. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he stood to one side. As he was standing there, he said to Ven. Ratthapala, "May Master Ratthapala sit here on the elephant rug."

"Never mind, great king. You sit there. I am sitting on my own seat."

So King Koravya sat down on the seat prepared. As he was sitting there, he said to Ven. Ratthapala, "There are cases where, having suffered these four kinds of loss, men shave off their hair & beard, put on the ochre robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness. Which four? Loss through aging, loss through illness, loss of wealth, & loss of relatives... But Master Ratthapala has suffered none of these. What did he know or see or hear that Master Ratthapala went forth from the home life into homelessness?"

"Great king, there are four Dhamma summaries stated by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened. Having known & seen & heard them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness. Which four?

"'The world1 is swept away. It does not endure': This is the first Dhamma summary stated by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened. Having known & seen & heard it, I went forth from the home life into homelessness.

"'The world is without shelter, without protector': This is the second Dhamma summary...

"'The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind': This is the third Dhamma summary...

"'The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving': This is the fourth Dhamma summary...

"These, great king, are the four Dhamma summaries stated by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened. Having known & seen & heard them, I went forth from the home life into homelessness."

"Master Ratthapala, you say, 'The world is swept away. It does not endure.' Now how is the meaning of this statement to be understood?"

"What do you think, great king: When you were twenty or twenty-five years old — an expert elephant rider, an expert horseman, an expert charioteer, an expert archer, an expert swordsman — were you strong in arm & strong in thigh, fit, & seasoned in warfare?"

"Yes, Master Ratthapala, when I was twenty or twenty-five years old... I was strong in arm & strong in thigh, fit, & seasoned in warfare. It was as if I had supernormal power. I do not see anyone who was my equal in strength."

"And what do you think, great king: Are you even now as strong in arm & strong in thigh, as fit, & as seasoned in warfare?"

"Not at all, Master Ratthapala. I'm now a feeble old man, aged, advanced in years, having come to the last stage of life, 80 years old. Sometimes, thinking, 'I will place my foot here,' I place it somewhere else."

"It was in reference to this, great king, that the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened, said: 'The world is swept away. It does not endure.' Having known & seen & heard this, I went forth from the home life into homelessness."

"It's amazing, Master Ratthapala. It's astounding, how well that has been said by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened: 'The world is swept away. It does not endure.' For the world really is swept away, Master Ratthapala. It does not endure.

"Now, in this royal court there are elephant troops & cavalry & chariot troops & infantry that will serve to defend us from dangers. And yet you say, 'The world is without shelter, without protector.' How is the meaning of this statement to be understood?"

"What do you think, great king: Do you have any recurring illness?"

"Yes, Master Ratthapala, I have a recurring wind-illness. Sometimes my friends & advisors, relatives & blood-kinsmen, stand around me saying, 'This time King Koravya will die. This time King Koravya will die.'"

"And what do you think, great king: Can you say to your friends & advisors, relatives & blood-kinsmen, 'My friends & advisors, relatives & blood-kinsmen are commanded: all of you who are present, share out this pain so that I may feel less pain'? Or do you have to feel that pain all alone?"

"Oh, no, Master Ratthapala, I can't say to my friends & advisors, relatives & blood-kinsmen, 'All of you who are present, share out this pain so that I may feel less pain.' I have to feel that pain all alone."

"It was in reference to this, great king, that the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened, said: 'The world is without shelter, without protector.' Having known & seen & heard this, I went forth from the home life into homelessness."

"It's amazing, Master Ratthapala. It's astounding, how well that has been said by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened: 'The world is without shelter, without protector.' For the world really is without shelter, Master Ratthapala. It is without protector.

"Now, in this royal court there is a great deal of gold & silver stashed away underground & in attic vaults. And yet you say, 'The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind.' How is the meaning of this statement to be understood?"

"What do you think, great king? As you now enjoy yourself endowed & replete with the five strings of sensuality, can you say, 'Even in the afterlife I will enjoy myself in the same way, endowed & replete with the very same five strings of sensuality'? Or will this wealth fall to others, while you pass on in accordance with your kamma?"

"On, no, Master Ratthapala, I can't say, 'Even in the afterlife I will enjoy myself in the same way, endowed & replete with the very same five strings of sensuality.' This wealth will fall to others, while I pass on in accordance with my kamma."

"It was in reference to this, great king, that the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened, said: 'The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind.' Having known & seen & heard this, I went forth from the home life into homelessness."

"It's amazing, Master Ratthapala. It's astounding, how well that has been said by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened: 'The world is without ownership. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind.' For the world really is without ownership, Master Ratthapala. One has to pass on, leaving everything behind.

"Now, Master Ratthapala, you say, 'The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving.' How is the meaning of this statement to be understood?"

"What do you think, great king: Do you now rule over the prosperous country of Kuru?"

"That is so, Master Ratthapala. I rule over the prosperous country of Kuru."

"What do you think, great king: Suppose a trustworthy, reliable man of yours were to come to you from the east. On arrival he would say to you, 'May it please your majesty to know, I have come from the east. There I saw a great country, powerful & prosperous, populous & crowded with people. Plenty are the elephant troops there, plenty the cavalry troops, chariot troops, & infantry troops. Plenty is the ivory-work there, plenty the gold & silver, both worked & unworked. Plenty are the women for the taking. It is possible, with the forces you now have, to conquer it. Conquer it, great king!' What would you do?"

"Having conquered it, Master Ratthapala, I would rule over it."

"Now what do you think, great king? Suppose a trustworthy, reliable man of yours were to come to you from the west... the north... the south... the other side of the ocean. On arrival he would say to you, 'May it please your majesty to know, I have come from the other side of the ocean. There I saw a great country, powerful & prosperous, populous & crowded with people. Plenty are the elephant troops there, plenty the cavalry troops, chariot troops, & infantry troops. Plenty is the ivory-work there, plenty the gold & silver, both worked & unworked. Plenty are the women for the taking. It is possible, with the forces you now have, to conquer it. Conquer it, great king!' What would you do?"

"Having conquered it, Master Ratthapala, I would rule over it, too."

"It was in reference to this, great king, that the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened, said: 'The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving.' Having known & seen & heard this, I went forth from the home life into homelessness."

"It's amazing, Master Ratthapala. It's astounding, how well that has been said by the Blessed One who knows & sees, worthy & rightly self-awakened: 'The world is insufficient, insatiable, a slave to craving.' For the world really is insufficient, Master Ratthapala. It's insatiable, a slave to craving."

That is what Ven. Ratthapala said. Having said that, he further said this:

I see in the world
  people with wealth
who, from delusion,
  don't make a gift
  of the treasure they've gained.
Greedy, they stash it away,
hoping for even more
sensual pleasures.
 
A king who, by force,
has conquered the world
and rules over the earth
to the edge of the sea,
dissatisfied with the ocean's near shore,
  longs for the ocean's
  far shore as well.
 
Kings & others
   plenty of people  
go to death with craving
  unabated. Unsated
they leave the body behind,
having not had enough
of the world's sensual pleasures.
 
One's relatives weep
& pull out their hair.
'Oh woe, our loved one is dead,' they cry.
Carrying him off,
wrapped in a piece of cloth,
they place him
  on a pyre,
  then set him on fire.
 
So he burns, poked with sticks,
in just one piece of cloth,
leaving all his possessions behind.
They are not shelters for one who has died  
  not relatives,
  friends,
  or companions.
 
His heirs take over his wealth,
while the being goes on,
in line with his kamma.
No wealth at all
follows the dead one  
  not children, wives,
  dominion, or riches.
 
Long life
can't be gotten with wealth,
nor aging
warded off with treasure.
The wise say this life
is next to nothing  
  impermanent,
  subject to change.
 
The rich & the poor
touch the touch of Death.
The foolish & wise
are touched by it, too.
But while fools lie as if slain by their folly,
the wise don't tremble
when touched by the touch.
 
Thus the discernment by which
one attains to mastery,
is better than wealth  
for those who haven't reached mastery
go from existence to existence,
  out of delusion,
  doing bad deeds.
 
One goes to a womb
& to the next world,
falling into the wandering on
   one thing
  after another  
while those of weak discernment,
  trusting in one,
also go to a womb
& to the next world.
 
Just as an evil thief
caught at the break-in
  is destroyed
  by his own act,
so evil people
  after dying, in the next world  
  are destroyed
  by their own acts.
 
Sensual pleasures  
  variegated,
  enticing,
  sweet  
in various ways disturb the mind.
Seeing the drawbacks in sensual objects:
that's why, O king, I went forth.
 
Just like fruits, people fall
   young & old  
at the break-up of the body.
Knowing this, O king,
  I went forth.
The contemplative life is better
     for sure.

 

 

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