舍利弗與目犍連

選譯並節錄自南傳巴利英譯《法句經》及斯里蘭卡向至尊者所著《舍利弗的一生》

那些把非真當真,把真當非真,不能達到真的境界,因為他們已被誤導;

把真當真,把假當假,他們接受正確的指引,將能達到真的境界。

 

非真思真實,真實見非真,邪思惟境界,彼不達真實。

真實思真實,非真知非真,正思惟境界,彼能達真實。

 


        

        故事的地點發生在離古印度王舍城不遠處,兩個分別叫做優婆提舍(Upatissa)與拘律陀(Kolita)的婆羅門村莊中。

那是在佛陀尚未出生的時候,住在優婆提舍村的一個叫做舍利(Sari)的婆羅門女懷孕了,同一天,住在拘律陀婆羅門村的另一個叫做目犍莉(Moggalli)婆羅門女也懷孕了。

         他們倆家七代為友,交情甚篤,更巧的是他們兩位婆羅門女都在同一天各自產下男嬰,分別將他們命名為「優婆提舍」及「拘律陀」。

這兩個男孩長大後接受了良好的教育,精通了所有的學問。他們各自擁有五百名婆羅門青年隨從,他們就像一般的年輕人一樣喜愛運動,常往公園或河邊休閒運動。

         當時,王舍城有一個叫「王頂節」的節日,這兩個年輕人與大家一起觀賞慶典,第一天、第二天,他們跟大家一樣開懷大笑、狂歡,但是到了第三天,他們突然不再感到興奮了,他們內心共同生起了一種想法:「這些有這麼好看嗎?這裡所有的人不到一百歲都會死掉,我們的一生就該這樣從中虛度嗎?我麼應該要尋求『不死法』才對啊!」

         就這樣,這兩位高貴的年輕人表達了彼此的想法,於是便在沙門散若耶的門下出家。很快的這兩個聰明絕頂的年輕人便將散若耶的所有教義學會了。他們問散若耶:「老師,您的教義就只有如此嗎?是否還有更深奧的?」

         散若耶回答:「就這些了,你們全知道了。」

         他們心想:「若是如此,我們繼續跟著他也無益。」於是,他們遊遍整個印度,到處遍訪名師,與他們討論教義,但是都不能滿足他們的心靈。

         最後,他們互相約定如果誰先證得「不死法」,那個人就要告訴另一個人。這樣兄弟般的約定,是來自彼此間深厚的友誼。

         那時,悉達多太子已成為佛陀,並接受頻婆娑羅王供養的竹林精舍。佛陀最初攝受的弟子阿說示尊者有天早上在拖缽時被優婆提舍看到了,優婆提舍為阿說示尊者莊嚴安詳的威儀所深深震攝,優婆提舍恭敬的等候尊者用完餐,然後以自己的臥具舖在地上恭請尊者坐下,並為尊者倒水,以弟子之禮奉侍尊者。

         優婆提舍問:「朋友啊!您的面色端嚴清淨如明月,請問您是依止誰出家為沙門?您的老師是誰?」

         尊者回答:「有位釋迦族的後裔,出家為大沙門,我就是依止世尊而出家,世尊是我的老師。」

         優婆提舍問:「您尊貴的老師都教授些什麼呢?」

         尊者心想:「這些遊行者反對佛陀的律法(Dispensation),我應該要讓他知道『法』的尊貴。」於是便說:「朋友啊,我才出家不久,可能無法為您詳細解說法的精要。」

         優婆提舍說:「朋友啊,您能告訴我多少就告訴我多少,知道它是我唯一的希望,至於我是否能領悟它,那就是我的事了。」

於是尊者便說出尊貴的緣起偈:「 諸法因緣生,我說是因緣, 因緣盡故滅,沙門如是說。」(從因而生的一切事物,如來已說其因,一切事物如何消散,他也說了,這是大沙門的教法。)

         不可思議的事發生了,當優婆提舍聽到前兩句時,便已證預流,聽完後兩句時,便已證初果。於是,優婆提舍便對尊者說:「謝謝您,您不必再解釋了,已經足夠了,請問您的老師住在哪裡?」

         尊者回答:「在竹林精舍堙I」

         優婆提舍說:「:「尊者啊,您請繼續前行吧,我已經跟一位朋友約好了,誰先找到『不死法』就通知誰,現在,我要去通知我的那位朋友了。」

         優婆提舍見到拘律陀,便將緣起偈復誦一遍給他聽,拘律陀聽完後也證得初果了。他們決定去拜見佛陀,但優婆提舍向來尊敬老師,他覺得應該將此「不死法」與他的老師散若耶一起分享,於是先來到散若耶的住處,對散若耶說:「老師啊,偉大的佛陀已出世了,他的教義已被宣揚,就讓我們一道去見這具足十力的聖人吧!」

         散若耶驚訝的大叫:「你們在說什麼?」他拒絕與他們一道前往,也不想聽有關佛陀的事,因為他擔心他會因此失去作老師的榮耀,將失去一切的名利。

         但是他們繼續勸說:「我們真的不介意一直當您的學生,我們一樣還是會尊敬您的,請您與我們一起同行吧!」

         散若耶心想:「他們懂這麼多,今後不會再聽我的了。」於是便說:「你們要去儘管去,我不會去的!」

         他們問:「為什麼不去呢?」

         散若耶說:「我是許多人的老師,如果要我重做學生,那就像大水槽變成小水壺般。」

他們說:「老師啊,不要這麼想嘛。」

         散若耶說:「我的愛徒啊,你們要去就去吧,別再勸我了。」

         他們說:「老師啊,當大家都持花和香去禮敬世尊,而我們也去了,那時您該怎麼辦呢?」

         散若耶說:「你們覺得這世上傻子多還是聰明人多?」

         他們說:「傻子多。」

         散若耶說:「既然這樣,那聰明的人就去喬達摩那兒吧!愚蠢的人就留在我這兒吧!你們走吧!」

他們無奈的離開散若耶,走前對他說:「老師,你終會明白自己是錯的!」

         他們說完便離開,但他們離去後,散若耶的學生也跟著他們一起離開了,整個道場空蕩蕩的。散若耶因此激憤的當場吐了鮮血。

         在竹林精舍中,世尊正在為四眾弟子說法,看到了他們兩人以及隨行的學生,便對諸比丘們說:「現在正朝精舍方向前來的那兩個年輕人將會是如來的兩位非常傑出又神聖的弟子。」

         他們見到了世尊,恭敬地向他頂禮,然後坐在一旁,向世尊請問:「世尊啊,我們可以在如來坐下出家,並受更高的戒法嗎?」

         佛陀說:「來吧!比丘們,如來正法已善說,現在就過著梵行的生活以終止『苦』吧!」   

這就是兩位大尊者出家的儀式與經過。

Verses 11 and 12

I (8) The Story of Thera Sariputta

While residing at Veluvana, the Bamboo Grove monastery in Rajagaha, the Buddha uttered Verses (11) and (12) of this book, with reference to Sanjaya, a former teacher of the Chief Disciples, the Venerable Sariputta and the Venerable Moggallana (formerly Upatissa and Kolita).

Upatissa and Kolita were two youths from Upatissa and Kolita, two villages near Rajagaha. While looking at a show they realized the insubstantiality of things and they decided to search for the way to liberation. First, they approached Sanjaya. the wandering ascetic at Rajagaha, but they were not satisfied with his teachings. So they went all over Jarnbudipa and came back to their native place, after searching for, but not finding the true dhamma. At this point they came to an understanding that one who found the true dhamma should inform the other.

One day, Upatissa came across Thera Assaji and learned from him the substance of the dhamma. The thera uttered the verse beginning with "Ye dhamma hetuppabhava", meaning, "those phenomena which proceed from a cause". Listening to the verse, Upatissa became established in the Sotapatti Magga and Phala. Then, as promised, he went to his friend Kolita, explained to him that he, Upatissa, had attained the state of Deathlessness and repeated the verse to his friend. Kolita also become established in Sotapatti Fruition at the end of the verse. They both remembered their former teacher and so went to Sanjaya and said to him, "We have found one who could point out the Path to Deathlesseness; the Buddha has appeared in the world; the Dhamma has appeared; the Sangha has appeared... Come, let us go to the Teacher." They had hoped that their former teacher would go along with them to the Buddha and by listening to the discourses he, too, would come to realize Magga and Phala. But Sanjaya refused.

So Upatissa and Kolita, with two hundred and fifty followers, went to the Buddha, at Veluvana. There, they were initiated and admitted into the Order as bhikkhus. Upatissa as son of Rupasari became known as Thera Sariputta; Kolita as son of Moggali became known as Thera Maha Moggallana. On the seventh day after the initiation Maha Moggallana attained Arahatship. Thera Sariputta achieved the same a fortnight after initiation. On that day, the Buddha made them his two Chief Disciples (Agga-Savaka).

The two Chief Disciples then related to the Buddha how they went to the Giragga festival, the meeting with Thera Assaji and their attainment of Sotapatti Fruition. They also told the Buddha about their former teacher Sanjaya, who refused to accompany them. Sanjaya had said, "Having bean a teacher to so many pupils, for me to become his pupil would be like a jar turning into a drinking cup. Besides, only few people are wise and the majority are foolish; let the wise go to the wise Gotama, the foolish would still come to me. Go your way, my pupils."

Thus, as the Buddha pointed out, Sanjaya's false pride was preventing him from seeing truth as truth; he was seeing untruth as truth and would never arrive at the real truth.

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows.

Verse 11: They take untruth for truth; they take truth for untruth; such persons can never arrive at the truth, for they hold wrong views.

Verse 12: They take truth for truth; they take untruth for untruth; such persons arrive at the truth, for they hold right views.

At the end of the discourse, many people came to be established in Sotapatti Fruition.

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